اثرات عمق‌های مختلف آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی و سطحی بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی دو رقم نخل خرمای کبکاب و زاهدی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 محقق صنایع غذایی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

با توجه به محدودیت منابع آب استفاده از روش­های آبیاری تحت فشار با هدف بهره­برداری بهینه امری اجتناب ناپذیر است. این آزمایش در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان طی سه فصل زراعی (1395-1392) در قالب طرح آماری بلوک­های کامل تصادفی به صورت کرت­های یک بار خرد شده با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. مقدار آب مصرفی در روش آبیاری قطره­ای زیرسطحی در سه ســطح 75، 100 و 125 درصد نیازآبی و یک سطح در آبیاری قطره­ای سطحی با 100 درصد نیاز آبی در کرت­های اصلی و دو رقم  نخل خرمای کبکاب و زاهدی در کرت­های فرعی مقایسه گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد بین سطوح مختلف آبیاری از نظر شاخص کارایی مصرف آب اختلاف معنی­دار در سطح 1 درصد وجود داشت. مقایسه میانگین­ها نشان داد تیمار قطره­ای سطحی با عملکرد 9/8490 کیلوگرم در هکتار تیمار برتر بود و در رتبه­ی اول جای گرفت. تیمار 75 درصد نیاز آبی با تولید 686/0 کیلوگرم خرما به ازای مصرف هر متر مکعب آب، بیش­ترین کارایی مصرف آب را به خود اختصاص داد. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل نشان داد تیمار 75 درصد نیاز آبی در رقم زاهدی با تولید 744/0 کیلوگرم در ازای مصرف یک مترمکعب آب سهم برتر را به خود اختصاص داد. تیمار 75 درصد نیاز آبی موجب صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب گردید. به­طوری که استفاده از آبیاری قطره­ای زیرسطحی موجب  کاهش مصرف آبی معادل 6/2509، 2/5019 و 3/2630 مترمکعب در هکتار به­ترتیب در مقایسه با تیمارهای 100 و 125 درصد نیاز آبی در قطره­ای زیرسطحی و تیمار قطره­ای سطحی شده است. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد در شاخص­ رطوبت میوه اثر سطوح آبیاری در سطح 1 درصد و اثر رقم در سطح 5 درصد  معنی دار بودند ولی اثرات متقابل معنی دار نشد. مقایسه میانگین­ها نشان داد در صفت سفتی بافت، تیمار 75 درصد نیاز آبی با سفتی 4/10 نیوتن بر مترمربع تیمار برتر شده و در رتبه اول قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Surface and Subsurface Drip Irrigation Depths on the Yield Quantity and Quality of two Kabkab and Zahedi date palm varieties

نویسندگان [English]

  • N salamati 1
  • H Dehghanisanij 2
  • L Behbahani 3
1 Research Assist Prof., Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran
2 Res. Assoc. Prof., Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI), Agricultural Research Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
3 Researcher of food industry, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to limitations in water resources scarcity, application of pressurized irrigation methods is inevitable for optimum use of water. This study was conducted in Behbahan Agricultural Research Station, during three cropping seasons (2013-2016). The statistical design was split plot with the design of randomized complete blocks  at three replications. The main plots were crop requirements at levels 75%  (SDI75), 100% (SDI100) and 125% (SDI125) of full irrigation for subsurface drip and 100 (SD100)  of full irrigation for surface drip irrigation and sub-plots were Kabkab and Zahedi date palm varieties. Results of combined variance analysis showed significant difference between the irrigation levels (1%) based on water use efficiency. According to the comparison of mean values, the highest yield with 8490.9 kg/ha belonged to SD100. Zahedi variety showed the highest water use efficiency of 0.686 kg/m3 under SDI75. Comparison of mean interactions showed that Zahedi variety had the highest water use efficiency with the amount of 0.744 kg/m3 compared to others treatments. SDI75 caused 2509.6, 5019.2 and 2630.3 m3/ha water saving in comparison to SDI100, SDI125 and SD100 Respectively. Combined analysis of variance showed that irrigation levels and cultivars had a significant effect on fruit moisture at 1% and 5% level, respectively, but the interaction effects were not significant. Comparison of mean values showed that SDI75 was superior and ranked first in the stiffness of tissue with 10.4 Newton/m2.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water requirements
  • Water levels
  • Water Use Efficiency
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