بررسی اثر بار رسوب‌ و بافت خاک بر خصوصیات هیدرولیکی جریان در فرسایش شیاری شبیه‌سازی شده

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز

چکیده

شیارها به­عنوان منبع و محل تولید و انتقال رواناب و رسوب روی دامنه­ها می­باشند. خصوصیات جریان در شیارها می­تواند تحت­تأثیر نوع و میزان مواد همراه باشد. آگاهی از فرآیند توسعه شیار­ها مستلزم شناخت خصوصیات هیدرولیکی جریان در شیارها می­باشد. این پژوهش به­منظور بررسی اثرات بار رسوب بر خصوصیات هیدرولیکی جریان در شیارها انجام گرفت. آزمایش در فلومی به ابعاد 3/0× 4/0 ×4 متر در شیب10درصد در خاک­های با بافت­ لوم، شن لومی  و لوم رس شنی  تحت بارش با شدت 90 میلی­متر بر ساعت در چهار تکرار انجام شد. عدد رینولدز، عدد فرود، ضریب اصطکاک دارسی-ویسباخ، عمق جریان، تنش برشی و قدرت جریان طی فرآیند فرسایش شیاری مشخص شدند. نتایج نشان داد که ضریب اصطکاک دارسی-ویسباخ با افزایش باررسوب افزایش یافت. عدد فرود با افزایش بار رسوب به‌دلیل کاهش چشمگیر سرعت جریان کاهش یافت. تنش و قدرت برشی و عمق جریان نیز با افزایش بار رسوب افزایش داشتند. عمق جریان با افزایش بار رسوب بیشتر شد و در خاک لوم از 041/0 تا 1 میلی­متر و در خاک شن لومی از 07/0 تا 3/1 میلی­متر و در خاک لوم رس شنی از 06/0 تا 7/0 میلی­متر بود. ضریب تبیین بین بار رسوب و تمام خصوصیات هیدرولیکی برای دو خاک لوم و شن لومی بالاتر از 90 درصد  ارزیابی شد ولی برای خاک لوم رس شنی حدود 60 درصد بود. به طور کلی این پژوهش نشان داد که برهم­کنشی معنی­دار بین بار رسوب و خصوصیات هیدرولیکی جریان در شیار­ها برقرار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating Effect of Sediment Load and Soil Texture on Flow Hydraulic characteristics of a Simulated Rill Erosion

نویسندگان [English]

  • N Sadeghian 1
  • AR vaezi 2
  • A Majnooni heris 3
1 P.hD. Student in Soil Science Dept. of Soil Science, Univ. of Zanjan, Iran
2 Prof, Dept. of Soil Science, Univ. of Zanjan, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof, Dept. of Water Engineering, Univ. of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rills are often the major area and source of runoff and sediment in hillslopes. The hydraulic characteristics of flow in the rills can be affected by type and amount of sediment. Knowledge on the flow hydraulic characteristics is essential to find the major mechanism of rill development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of type and amount of sediment on the rill hydraulic characteristics. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume with 4m× 0.4 m×0.3m dimensions located at 9% slope steepness under 90 mm h-1 rainfall intensity which was applied on three soil textures of loam, loamy sand and sandy clay loam with four replications. Reynolds number, Froude number, flow depth, Darcy–Weisbach friction coefficient, shear stress and stream power were determined during the rill erosion process. The results showed that Reynolds number and Darcy–Weisbach friction coefficient increased as the sediment load increased in the rills. Froude number decreased as sediment load increased which was attributed with decreasing flow velocity. Shear stress and stream power and flow depth increased with increasing the eroded sediment. Flow depth increased with incease of sediment load, varying from 0.041 to 1mm in loam soil, 0.07 to 1.3 mm in loamy sand soil and 0.06 to 0.7 mm in sandy clay loam soil. Coefficient of determination between sediment load and all hydraulic characteristics were higher than 90% for loam and loamy sand and higher than 60% for sandy clay loam. This study revealed that significant interaction was between sediment load and hydraulic characteristics of flow in the rills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sediment load, Soil erosion
  • Hydraulic of rill flow
  • Run Off
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