بررسی شکست سدهای خاکی، روندیابی و پهنه‌بندی سیلاب با اعمال مدل‌های ریاضی و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی (مطالعه موردی: سد علویان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

اگر چه سازه سد نقش مهمی در مهار سیلاب و تامین آب برای کشاورزی، مصرف انسانی، استفاده صنعتی، تولید برق و پرورش ماهی دارد، در صورت شکست آن، تلفات جانی و خسارات بسیاری را ایجاد می­نماید. برای کاهش اثرات مخرب شکست سد در مناطق سیل­گیر پایاب، ارائه نقشه خطرپذیری سیلاب بسیار ضروری می­باشد. بدین منظور در مرحله اول، هیدروگراف شکست خروجی از سد علویان با استفاده از مدل BREACH و تحت سناریوی روگذری جریان محاسبه گردید. در مرحله بعد، با استفاده از مدل HEC-RAS سیلاب ناشی از شکست سد در پایین­دست رودخانه روندیابی گردید. در نهایت از نرم افزار ArcGIS جهت پهنه­بندی سیلاب استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان داد که سد علویان، در مدت زمان 46 دقیقه و با حداکثر دبی خروجی در حدود 66000 مترمکعب بر ثانیه به‌طور کامل می‌شکند. همچنین، بر اساس نقشه خطرپذیری سیلاب، بیشتر نقاطی که در منطقه مورد مطالعه تحت تاثیر سیلاب ناشی از شکست سد علویان واقع شده‌اند، جزو مناطق پر خطر محسوب می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Earthen Dams Break Analysis, Flood Routing and Mapping using Mathematical Models and Geographic Information System (A Case Study: Alavian Dam)

چکیده [English]

Although a dam’s structure has an important role in suppressing floods and providing water for activities such as agriculture, human consumption, industrial use, electricity generation and pisciculture, its break has an immense damage and loss of life when it occurs. In order to reduce the damaging effects of the dam break on the downstream places, it is necessary to provide the flood hazard map. For this purpose, in the first step, the output breach hydrograph of the Alavian dam was computed by the BREACH model under the overtopping scenario. In the next step, the breach hydrograph was routed through the downstream of the river by using HEC-RAS model. Finally, the ArcGISsoftware was utilized to prepare the flood mapping. The results of the present study illustrated that the Alavian dam is breached with the time of failure of 46 min and the peak discharge of about 66000 m3/s. Furthermore, according to the flood hazard map, most of the downstream inundation zones due to Alavian failure dam have been considered as the high hazard area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alavian dam
  • Dam break
  • Flood hazard map
  • Flood mapping
  • Geographic Information System
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