تعیین کیفیت آب چاه‌های کشاورزی دشت سراب جهت استفاده در سیستم‌های‌ آبیاری تحت فشار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

برداشت بی­رویه از آب­های زیرزمینی باعث آسیب شدید به آبخوان­ها شده و دشت­های کشور به دلیل این وضعیت با پدیده نشست مواجه­ هستند. در این راستا پیرو تشویق دولت با ارایه کمک­های مالی بلاعوض، کشاورزان زیادی داوطلب اجرای سیستم­های تحت فشار هستند. لذا شناخت مناسب کمی و کیفی منابع آبی برای داشتن کشاورزی پایدار ضروری است. در این مطالعه به بررسی کیفیت آب­ تعداد 103 چاه­ عمیق کشاورزی منطقه سراب که مالکان آنها متقاضی اجرای سیستم تحت فشار هستند، پرداخته شد. برای تعیین وضعیت کیفی آب این چاه­ها علاوه بر عوامل شیمیایی، از شاخص­هایی نظیر نسبت جذب منیزیم (MAR)، شاخص نفوذپذیری (PI)، پتانسیل شوری (PS)، نسبت کلایز (KR)، نسبت جذب سدیم(SAR)ونسبت سدیم محلول (SSP)استفاده گردید. مقادیر EC، SAR، MAR، PS و شاخص کلراید حاکی از کاسته شدن کیفیت آب از شرق به غرب و از جنوب به شمال دشت می­باشد. حدود 50 درصد آب چاه­ها در کلاس C3S1قرار داشته و متوسط شاخص کلایز چاه­ها در وضعیت مناسب برابر 46/0 تعیین شد. جز یک چاه با SAR برابر 52/15 آب بقیه دارای مقادیر کمتر از 15 بودند و آب غیرقلیایی داشتند. فقط 17 درصد آب چاه­ها دارای SSP بالای 40 درصد بوده و از نظر این شاخص مناسب نبودند. بیشتر نمونه­ها از نظر MAR کمتر از حد مجاز استاندارد 50 درصد هستند. در نهایت در شرایط مطالعه حاضر برای پایاب 90 درصد چاه­ها اجرای سیستم آبیاری بارانی و تیپ در حدود 10 درصد بقیه کاربرد هیدروفلوم توصیه می­گردد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining Water Quality of Agricultural Wells for Use in Pressurized Irrigation Systems of Sarab Plain, Iran

چکیده [English]

       Extraordinary withdrawal of groundwater resources has caused severe damages to aquifers, and the country's plains are facing subsidence due to this situation. In this regard, following the encouragement of the government by offering financial supports, many of farmers have volunteered to run pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, gathering proper quantitative and qualitative data of water resources is necessary for sustainable agriculture. In this study, water quality of 103 agricultural wells in Sarab plain, which owners are applying for the operation of pressurized irrigation system, was investigated. To determine the water quality conditions of these wells, the magnesium absorption ratio (MAR), permeability index (PI), salinity potential (PS), Kelley's Ratio (KR), sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percentage (SSP) indices were evaluated along with some other chemical parameters in the studied plain. The EC, SAR, MAR, PS and chloride indices indicated a decline in water quality from east to west and from south to north of plain. Approximately, water in 50% of wells were in the C3S1 class and the average KR of all wells were in a suitable condition with the value of 0.46. Except for one case with the value of 15.52, the remaining wells water had non-alkaline water with the SAR values less than 15. Only 17% of wells water had SSP values over 40% and they were not suitable based on this indicator. Most of the samples were located below the standard limit of 50% for MAR. Finally, in this study condition the application of sprinkler and tape irrigation systemsfor 90% of wells is recommended and for 10% of the rest of wells gated the pipes irrigation system may be adapted.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Groundwater
  • Irrigation water
  • evaluation
  • Chemical parameters
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