ارزیابی عملکرد برخی سامانه‌های آبیاری قطره‌ای (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان سنقر)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

در این پژوهش، 8 سامانه آبیاری قطره‌ای ارزیابی شد. از هر سامانه یک مانیفلد در حال کار انتخاب و ارزیابی‌ها بر روی چهار لترال از ابتدا، یک سوم، دو سوم و لترال انتهایی صورت گرفت. دبی 8 قطره‌چکان در هر لترال، فشار ابتدا و انتها و حداقل فشار ورودی به لترال اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که دبی در 5/87 درصد از قطره‌چکان‌ها ، به‌دلیل پایین بودن فشار و گرفتگی قطره‌چکان‌ها به میزان قابل ملاحظه‌ای از دبی اسمی کمتر است. در 5/12 درصد از قطره‌چکان‌ها میانگین دبی قطره‌چکان‌ها 10 درصد بیش از دبی اسمی بود. یکنواختی کاربرد آب، راندمان واقعی و پتانسیل کاربرد آب در چارک پایین سامانه‌ها در حد ضعیف ارزیابی گردید. متوسط مقادیر ضریب یکنواختی، ضریب کاهش راندمان، راندمان پتانسیل و راندمان واقعی کاربرد آب در چارک پایین سامانه‌ها به‌ترتیب 6/38، 5/71، 73/34 و 6/38 درصد محاسبه شد. ارزیابی‌ها نشان داد مشکل عمده سامانه‌های آبیاری قطره‌ای، دست‌کاری قطره‌چکان‌ها، گرفتگی لوله‌ها و قطره‌چکان‌ها، ناهمگونی فشار و توزیع غیر یکنواخت آب، فقدان دانش و مهارت کاربران به‌واسطه تصور‌های سنتی باغ‌داران، طراحان و مجریان است. علی‌رغم اهمیت صافی‌ها و لزوم به‌کارگیری لوازم و اتصالات نو، باغداران معمولا حساسیتی به کامل بودن و تناسب فیلترها با آبدهی سامانه‌ها و عدم افت و نشت به‌دلیل نگهداری صحیح سامانه‌ها ندارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Performance Evaluation of Some Drip Irrigation System (Case Study: Sonqor city(

چکیده [English]

In this study, 8 drip irrigation systems were evaluated. In every system, an operating manifold was selected and its four laterals including the first, a third, two-thirds and the last one were evaluated. Discharge of 8 emitters per lateral, the first and the last pressure, and the minimum inlet pressure of the lateral were measured. The results showed that the discharge of 87.5% emitters were significantly lower than their nominal discharge, due to low pressure, and physical, chemical and algal blocking. In 12.5% of the emitters, the average discharge rates were 10% higher than the nominal discharge. Uniformity of water application, the potential efficiency of low quarter and application efficiency of low quarter of all systems were poor. The average of emission uniformity, the efficiency reduction factor, potential efficiency of low quarter and the application efficiency of low quarter of the systems were calculated as 38.6, 71.5, 34.73 and 38.6%, respectively. Assessments showed that the major problems of most drip irrigation systems were manipulation of emitters, the blockage of pipes and emitters, heterogeneity of pressure and non-uniform distribution of water, and the user’s lack of knowledge and skills due to traditional attitudes of gardeners, designers and executers. Despite the importance of different filtrations in drip irrigation and the use of new accessories, gardeners usually don't care about the completeness and proportionality of filters with the discharge and the loss and leakage due to the improper maintenance of systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emitter’s blockage
  • Irrigation efficiency
  • Irrigation Training
  • Lower quartile discharge
  • Potential water application
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