اثر دیاتومیت بر توزیع شکل‌های شیمیایی کادمیم در دو خاک‌ آلوده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

در دهه­های اخیر چالش ناشی از آلودگی خاک با فلزات سنگین تبدیل به یکی از خطرات جدی در کشورهای جهان از جمله ایران شده است. تثبیت فلزات سنگین با استفاده از جاذب­ها در احیای خاک­های آلوده به فلزات سنگین یکی از روش­های کم هزینه و سریع می­باشد. به منظور بررسی تأثیر دیاتومیت بر شکل­های شیمیایی کادمیم در خاک، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی در  3 سطح دیاتومیت (0،  2 و 5 درصد وزنی) و4 زمان­ خوابانیدن (1، 2، 4 و 8 هفته) در دو خاک آلوده و در 3 تکرار انجام شد. توزیع کادمیم در زمان­های مذکور با روش عصاره­گیری متوالی تعیین و برای ارزیابی وضعیت تحرک­پذیری آن در خاک­های مورد مطالعه، از دو شاخص تفکیک ­­کاهش­یافته (IR) و تحرک (MF) استفاده شد. نتایج به‌دست آمده نشان داد،  کاربرد دیاتومیت موجب کاهش معنی­دار (P ≤ 0.01) کادمیم در بخش­های تبادلی و کربناتی و افزایش معنی­دار آن در بخش­های پیوند یافته با اکسیدهای آهن و منگنز، آلی و باقیمانده نسبت به خاک شاهد گردید. با افزایش 5 درصد دیاتومیت به خاک­ها و زمان 8 هفته انکوباسیون، مقدار IR ( 71-42 درصد) و pH (8-5 درصد) افزایش، اما مقدار MF (33-30 درصد) و بخش قابل عصاره گیر با DTPA کادمیم (33-28 درصد) کاهش یافت که بیانگر کاهش تحرک کادمیم با افزایش درصد دیاتومیت است. با توجه به نتایج می­توان از دیاتومیت به‌عنوان یک ماده کاربردی ارزان برای حذف فلزات سنگین از جمله کادمیم از منابع خاک های آلوده استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Diatomite on Distribution of Chemical Forms of Cd in two Contaminated Soils

چکیده [English]

In recent decades, soil pollution with heavy metals in world countries (such as Iran) has been one of the most challenging issues. Stabilization of heavy metals by using absorbent in remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is one of the low-cost and fastest methods. In order to study the effect of diatomite on chemical forms of Cd in calcareous soils, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 levels of diatomite application in soil (0, 2 and 5 %), 4 levels of incubation time (1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks) and twocontaminated soils in three replications. Chemical distribution of Cd in soils were determined using Tessier sequential extraction method at the above-mentioned incubation time and reduced partition index (IR) and mobility factor (MF) of metal were calculated as a Cd mobility index in soils. Results showed that application of diatomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) decreased the exchangeable and carbonate fractions and increased iron and manganese oxide bound organic and residual fractions in comparison to the control treatment. In 5% diatomite treatment after 8 weeks’ incubation the IR (42-71%) and pH (5-8%) values increased but the amounts of MF (30-33%) and DTPA-extractable Cd (33-28%) decreased, demonstrating a decrease in the mobility of metal in soils. It was concluded that addition of diatomite in soil lead decreasing the mobility of Cd and Pb in soils. According to the results, diatomite due to greater efficiency for immobilization of Cd in contaminated soils as a low-cost amendment can be used for immobilization of the high amount of Cd ions from contaminated soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sequential extraction
  • Diatomite
  • Cd
  • Calcareous soil
  • Mobility factor
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