تعیین سهم جریان زیست‌محیطی دریاچه ارومیه از رودخانه گدارچای با استفاده از روش‌های اکوهیدرولوژیکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

هدف اصلی در مطالعه حاضر استفاده از روش‌های مختلف اکوهیدرولوژیکی برای تعیین نیاز آبی زیست‌محیطی رودخانه دائمی گدارچای در حوضه آبریز دریاچه ارومیه است. نیاز آبی زیست‌محیطی رودخانه گدارچای در دو بازه مختلف ایستگاه پل نقده و پل بهراملو موردمطالعه قرارگرفته است. در این تحقیق، هشت روش هیدرواکولوژیکی (1- Tennant؛ 2- Tessman؛ 3- شاخص­های تداوم جریان FDC؛ 4- Smakhtin؛ 5- FDC shifting؛ 6- DRM؛ 7- محدوده تغییرپذیری RVA؛ و 8- روش کیفیت آب موسوم به رابطه Q) برای ارزیابی جریان زیست‌محیطی این رودخانه مورداستفاده‌ قرار‌گرفته است. بر اساس این نتایج، برای حفظ رودخانه گدارچای در کمینه وضعیت اکولوژیکی قابل‌قبول (کلاس مدیریت زیست‌محیطی C)، به ترتیب شدت‌جریان متوسط سالیانه معادل 28/3 و 25/3 مترمکعب بر ثانیه، باید در دو موقعیت ایستگاه‌های هیدرومتری پل نقده و پل بهراملو (در کیلومترهای 40 و 18 از دریاچه ارومیه)، برقرار باشد. توزیع ماهانه نیاز زیستی رودخانه گدار نیز تعیین و پیشنهاد شده است. احیای دریاچه ارومیه نیاز به ارزیابی جریان‌ زیست‌محیطی هر یک از رودخانه‌های بزرگ حوضه آبریز دریاچه بر اساس پتانسیل جریان رودخانه‌ها و تعدیل حقابه‌های کشاورزی دارد. پایش جریان زیست‌محیطی در طول رودخانه‌ها برای اطمینان از انتقال کمینه جریان زیست‌محیطی به دریاچه ارومیه ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Environmental Flow Contribution of Gadar River to the Urmia Lake Using Eco-Hydrological Methods

چکیده [English]

The main aim of the present study was to use different Hydro-Ecological methods to determine the environmental flow requirements in a typical perennial river, the Gadar River, in the Urmia Lake Basin, Iran. The ecological needs of the Gadar River were investigated in two different reaches along the river. Eight Eco-Hydrological methods (1- Tennant, 2- Tessman, 3- Flow Duration Curve Analysis (FDCA), 4- Smakhtin, 5-FDC shifting, 6- DRM, 7- RVA, 8- Q Equation) were used for the assessment of the minimum river environmental flow requirements. In order to maintain the Gadar River at minimum acceptable environmental status (i.e. Class C of the environmental management of rivers), average annual flows of 3.28 and 3.25 m3/s are to be allocated along the river in Naqadeh Bridge and Bahramlu Bridge Stations (located 40 and 18 km upstream from the Urmia Lake), respectively. Also, the prescribed monthly distribution of environmental flow requirements has been considered and proposed for the Gadar riverine life. Restoration of Urmia Lake needs the evaluation of the potential flows from the in-basin rivers and the revision of agricultural water rights. Monitoring the minimum environmental flow regime is necessary along the rivers to make sure the delivery of the water into the Urmia Lake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental flows
  • Eco-hydrological Methods
  • River Management
  • Gadar River
  • Urmia lake
Abdi R and Yasi M, 2015. Evaluation of environmental flow requirements using eco-hydrologic-hydraulic methods in perennial rivers. International Journal of Water Science and Technology 72 (3): 354–363.
Ahmadipour Z and Yasi M, 2014. Evaluation of eco-hydrology-hydraulics methods for environmental flows rivers (case study: Nazloo River, Urmia Lake Basin). Journal of Hydraulics 9 (2): 69-82.
Azrakani M, Shokoohi A and Singh VP, 2017. Introducing a holistic ecological model under data shortage for determining rivers’ ecological water requirements. Journal of Iran-Water Resources Research 13 (2): 140-153.
Armitage P and Petts GE, 1992. Biotic score and prediction to assess the effects of water abstraction on river macro invertebrates for conservation purposes. Aquat. Conserve 2: 1–17.
Hughes DA and Hannart P, 2003. A desktop model used to provide an initial estimate of the ecological instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa. Journal of Hydrology 270: 167-181.
Hughes DA and Smakhtin VU, 1996. Daily flow time series patching or extension: a spatial interpolation approach based on flow duration curves. Hydrological Sciences Journal 41(6): 851–871.
King JM, Tharme RE and Brown CA, 1999. Definition and implementation of instream flows, Thematic Report for the World Commission on Dams. Cape Town, SA, Southern Waters Ecological Research and Consulting, 63.
Pyrce R, 2004. Hydrological low flow indices and their uses. Watershed Science Centre. WSC Report No. 04, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, 33.
Richter BD, Baumgartner JV, Braun DP, Powell J, 1998. A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration within a river network. Regulated Rivers: Research Management 14 (4): 329–340.
Sedigkia M, Ayubzadeh SA, Haji Esmaeili M, 2015. Investigation on the necessities of Instream Flow Needs assessment in the rivers using hydro-ecological methods. Iranian Journal of Eco Hydrology 2 (3): 289-300.
Smakhtin VU and Anputhas M, 2006. An assessment of environmental flow requirements of Indian river basins. Pp. 1–10, IWMI Research Report 107. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Smakhtin VU, Revenga C, Doll P, 2004. A pilot global assessment of environmental water requirements and scarcity. Water International 29: 307–317.
Smakhtin VU, Shilpakar RL, Hughes DA, 2006. Hydrology-based assessment of environmental flows: an example from Nepal. Hydrological Sciences Journal 51 (2): 207–222.
Tennant DL, 1976. Instream flow regimens for fish, wildlife, recreation and related environmental resources. Fisheries 1: 6–10.
Tessman SA, 1980. Environmental Assessment, Technical Appendix E, In: Environmental Use Sector Reconnaissance Elements of the Western Dakotas Region of South Dakota Study. Water Resources Research Institute, South Dakota State University, Brookings.
Tharme RE, Smakhtin VU, 2003. Environmental flow assessment in Asia: capitalizing on existing momentum. Pp. 301–313, Proceedings of the First Southeast Asia Water Forum, Vol 2, Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 2003, Thailand Water Resources Association, Bangkok.
Yasi M and Ashuri M, 2017. Environmental flow contributions from in-basin rivers and dams for saving Urmia Lake. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civ Eng (41): 55–64.
Zarkani M, Shokoohi A, Singh V, 2017. Introducing a holistic ecological model under data shortage for determining river ecological water requirements. Iran-Water Resource Research 13 (2): 140-153.