تأثیر فسفر و آلودگی سرب و روی بر سینتیک استخراج فسفر، سرب و روی قابل‌جذب از یک خاک آهکی در شرایط غرقاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

برای بررسی تأثیر فسفر (P) و آلودگی سرب (Pb) و روی (Zn) بر سینتیک استخراج P، Pb و Zn قابل­جذب از یک خاک آهکی در شرایط غرقاب،آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی و با چهار عامل‌ مدت غرقاب در شش سطح (1/0، 2، 6، 12، 36 و 72 روز)، Zn در دو سطح (0 و 250 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع ZnSO4.7H2O)، P در دو سطح (0 و 500 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O) و Pb در دو سطح (0 و 800 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک از منبع Pb(NO3)2)و با دو تکرار اجرا شد. در پایان هر یک از زمان­های غرقاب، P، Zn وPb  قابل­استخراج خاک با عصاره­گیر سلطانپور و شواب اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف P، Zn و Pb، به­ترتیب سبب افزایش P، Zn و Pb قابل­استخراج خاک گردید. در شرایط بدون کود فسفر، با افزایش مدت غرقاب شدن خاک، P قابل‌استخراج به­طور معناداری افزایش یافت در حالی‌که در شرایط با کود فسفر (500 میلی­گرم P بر کیلوگرم خاک) با افزایش مدت غرقاب شدن خاک، P قابل­استخراج به­طور میانگین 23 درصد کاهش یافت. در هر دو شرایط با و بدون Zn و Pb، با افزایش مدت غرقاب شدن خاک و مصرف کود P، Zn و Pb قابل­استخراج به­طور معناداری کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد که در خاک‌های آلوده به Pb یا Zn، مصرف کود P و غرقاب کردن خاک می‌تواند تحرک و زیست‌فراهمی این دو فلز سنگین را کاهش داده و موجب کاهش ورود آن­ها به آب‌ها و گیاهان گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Phosphorous and Contamination of Lead and Zinc on Extraction Kinetics of the Available P, Pb and Zn in a Calcareous Soil under Waterlogged Conditions

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P), contamination of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and soil waterlogging on extraction kinetics of the available P, Zn and Pb in a calcareous soil, an experiment was conducted as factorial on the basis of completely randomized design with two replications under laboratory conditions with four factors consisting waterlogging duration at six levels  (0.1, 2, 6, 12, 36 and 72 days), Zn at two levels (0 and 250 mg kg−1 soil), P at two levels (0 and 500 mg kg−1 soil) and Pb at two levels (0 and 800 mg kg−1 soil). The extractable-P, Zn and Pb contents were measured at the end of each time by Soltanpour and Schwab method. The results showed that application of P, Zn and Pb increased the extractable-P, Zn and Pb, respectively. The extractable-P was significantly increased with increasing duration of waterlogging under no P fertilizer application whereas P application (500 mg kg−1 soil) resulted in reducing the average extractable-P by 23%. The extractable-Zn and Pb significantly decreased with increasing duration of waterlogging and application of P fertilizer, regardless of Zn and Pb applications. The results showed that in Pb and Zn contaminated soils, application of P fertilizer and soil waterlogging could decrease mobility and bioavailability of these heavy metals, leading to restrict their entrance in waters and plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bioavailability
  • Contamination
  • Lead
  • Phosphorous
  • Waterlogging
  • Zinc
Abbaspour A, Kalbasi M, Hajrasoliha Sh and Golchin A, 2005. Investigation of some Iranian soils contamination to cadmium and lead. Pp. 38-42. Proceedings of the 9th Iranian soil science congress, 28-31 August, Tehran, Iran.
Alloway BJ, 2013. Heavy Metals in Soils. Third Edition. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK.
Alloway BJ, 2009. Soil factors associated with zinc deficiency in crops and humans.
Alloway BJ, 2008. Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition. Second Edition, IZA and IFA, Paris, France.
Basta NT, Gradwohl R, Snethen KL and Schroder JL, 2001. Chemical immobilization of lead, zinc, and cadmium in smelter-contaminated soils using biosolids and rock phosphate. Environmental Quality 30: 1222-1230.
Barben SA, Hopkins BG, Jolley VD, Webb BL and Nicholas BA, 2010. Phosphorus and zinc interactions in chelator- buffered solution grown russet Burbank potato. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33: 587-601.
Beladi M, Habibi D, Kashani A, Paknejad F and Golshan M, 2010. Investigating the effect of lead and copper on chlorophyll content, lipid membrane, relative water content and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in Lathyrus sativus. Quarterly Journal of Ecophysiology of Crops 2(2): 26-14.
Brune A and Dietz KJ, 2008. A comparative analysis of element composition of roots and leaves of barley seedlings grown in the presence of toxic cadmium, molybdenum, nickel and zinc concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition 18(4): 853-868.
Chen SB, Xu MG, Ma YB and Yang JC, 2007. Evaluation of different phosphate amendments on availability of metals in contaminated soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 67: 278-285.
Gee GW and Bauder JWC, 1986. Particle-size analysis. Pp. 383-411. In: Klute A (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Second Edition, American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA.
Havlin, JL, Beaton JD, Tisdale SL and Nelson WL, 2007. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers an Introduction to Nutrient Management. 8th Edition, Prentice Hall, USA.
Hu P, Quyamg Y, Wu L, Shen L, Luo Y and Christie P, 2015. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar. Journal of Environmental Science 27: 225-231.
Hu P, Li Z, Yuan C, Quyang Y, Zhou L, Huang J, Luo Y, Christie P and Wu H, 2013. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) with different metal accumulation capacities. Journal of Soil and Sediment 13: 916-924.
Ji XH, Liang YC, Lu YH, Liao YL, Nie J, Zheng SX and Li ZJ, 2007. The effect of water management on the mechanism and rate of uptake and accumulation of cadmium by rice growing in polluted paddy soil. Acta Ecologica Sinica 27: 3930-3939.
Jones J, 2001. Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis. CRC Press, LLC, USA.
Kabata-Pendias A and Pendias H, 2001. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington, D.C.
Kibria MG, Maniruzzaman M, Islam M and Osman KT, 2010. Effects of soil-applied lead on growth and partitioning of ion concentration in Spinacea oleracea L. tissues. Soil and Environment 29: 1-6.
Kirk GJD, Tian-ren Y and Choudhury FA, 1989. Phosphorus chemistry in relation to water regime. Pp. 211-225. Proceeding of a Symposium on Phosphorus Requirements for Sustainable Agriculture in Asia and Oceania. 6-10 March, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. 
Kuo S, 1996. Phosphorus. Pp. 869-919. In: Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabaei MA, Johnson CT and Sumner ME (Eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America Book Series, Madison, WI, USA.
Li JR and Xu YM, 2015. Immobilization of Cd in a paddy soil using moisture management and amendment.