اثر مواد آلی و زمان انکوباسیون بر شکل‌های شیمیایی کادمیم (Cd) در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

در این مطالعه اثر دو نوع ماده آلی شامل کود گاوی و کمپوست بقایای باگاس نیشکر بر روی شکل­های شیمیایی کادمیم خاک در طول سه دوره زمانی روز مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نمونه خاک با اسپری کردن محلول نمک کادمیوم به سطح آلودگی 50 میلی­گرم کادمیم بر کیلوگرم خاک رسیده و پس از گذشت 90 روز، مقادیر 25 و 50 تن در هکتار از مواد آلی مذکور به خاک اضافه گردید. سپس در زمان­های 1، 30 و 60 روز پس از اضافه کردن مواد آلی، برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی و نیز شکل‌های شیمیایی کادمیم در نمونه­های خاک بر اساس روش عصاره­گیری دنباله­ای تسیر تعیین شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین شکل کادمیم در همه تیمارها به شکل کربناتی اختصاص داشت و بر اثر استفاده از هر دو نوع ماده آلی و به‌ویژه کود گاوی، مقدار کادمیم متصل به مواد آلی و نیز کادمیم محلول و تبادلی به‌دلیل افزایش مقدار کربن آلی کل (TOC) و محلول (DOC) به‌طور معناداری (p < 0.05) افزایش یافت و مقدار کادمیم متصل به کربنات­ها به‌ویژه در خاک تیمار شده با 50 تن در هکتار کود گاوی به‌طور معناداری (p < 0.05) کاهش یافت. از طرف دیگر در همه نمونه­های خاک، اثر گذشت زمان تنها بر مقدار کادمیم متصل به مواد آلی و کربنات­ها معنادار شد. افزودن هر دو نوع ماده آلی و به‌ویژه کود گاوی باعث کاهش معنادار (p < 0.05) درصد فاکتور تحرک کادمیم از 6/57 درصد در تیمار شاهد  به 9/43 و 8/40 درصد به‌ترتیب در تیمارهای 25 و 50 تن کود گاوی و 6/49 و 9/46 درصد در تیمارهای 25 و 50 تن در هکتار کمپوست باگاس شد. در نهایت چنین نتیجه­گیری شد که افزودن کودهای دامی و بقایای گیاهی پوسیده شده به خاک باعث کاهش اجزاء با زیست­فراهمی بالای کادمیم، به­ویژه اجزاء کربناتی، نسبت به سایر شکل­های شیمیایی این فلز و متعاقباً کاهش تحرک کادمیم در خاک شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Organic Amendments and Incubation Time on Cadmium (Cd) Chemical Fractions in a Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • R Mohammadzadeh 1
  • M Chorom 2
  • AA Moezzi 2
  • M Norouzi Masir 3
1 Ph.D Student, Dep. of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agric., Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dep. of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agric., Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assist. Prof., Dep. of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agric., Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Effects of two organic amendments, cow manure and bagasse compost of sugarcane, on the chemical fractions of cadmium in soil were investigated at three incubation times in the present study. Soil sample was polluted with 50 mg kg-1 of cadmium by spraying the cadmium salt and after 90 days 25 and 50 tons’ ha-1 of the organic amendments were added to the soil. Some of the soil chemical properties and contents of chemical fractions of cadmium were determined by sequential extraction method of Tessier after 1, 30 and 60 days from the date of adding the organic amendments. The most fraction of cadmium in the all of the treatments was observed in the carbonate- fraction and the soluble and exchangeable- and organic matter- fractions of cadmium were significantly (p<0.05) increased by use of the both amendments especially by cow manure, due to increase of the total (TOC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon, also the content of the carbonate- fraction of cadmium was decreased especially in the soil treated with 50 tons ha-1 manure, significantly (p<0.05). On the other hand, the effect of incubation time was significant only on organic matter- and carbonate- fractions of cadmium. Adding the both amendments led to a significant (p<0.05) decrease of cadmium mobility factor from 57.6% in the control to 43.9% and 40.8% in the 25 and 50 tons ha-1of manure and also to 49.6% and 46.9% in the 25 and 50 tons ha-1of bagasse compost treatments, respectively. Finally, it was deducted that adding the decayed manure and plant residues to the soil led to decrease the cadmium fractions with higher bioavailability, specially carbonate fraction, related to the other chemical fractions of the metal and also decrease the cadmium mobility in soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium
  • Fractionation
  • Incubation
  • Organic matter
  • Time
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