اثر انواع مختلف بقایای گیاهی و کودهای دامی بر توزیع شکل‌های پتاسیم دو نوع خاک رسی تحت شرایط رطوبتی متفاوت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانش‌آموختگان کارشناسی ارشد بخش اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی داراب، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

افزودن بقایای آلی به اراضی در کشاورزی ارگانیک می‌تواند سبب تغییر در وضعیت پتاسیم خاک و در نتیجه تغییر قابلیت استفاده این عنصر و چرخه آن در خاک گردد. برای بررسی این امر، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاٌ تصادفی با کاربرد 11 نوع مواد آلی (بقایای یونجه، جو، نخود، باقلا و کودهای گوسفند، گاو، شتر، مرغ، کبوتر، بلدرچین و ورمی‌کمپوست) در دو نوع خاک رسی مناطق داراب و سپیدان فارس تحت دو شرایط رطوبتی (ظرفیت مزرعه و اشباع) با سه تکرار صورت گرفت. ابتدا مقدار دو گرم از بقایای آلی به 100 گرم از نمونه‌های خاک اضافه گردیده و در شرایط ظرفیت مزرعه و اشباع به‌مدت دو ماه در شرایط آزمایشگاه (دمای 2±22 درجه سلسیوس) نگهداری گردیدند و سپس مقدار پتاسیم محلول، تبادلی و غیرتبادلی در آنها اندازه‌گیری گردید. نتایج نشان داد که همه بقایای آلی به‌جز ورمی‌کمپوست، بقایای یونجه و کود شتر مقدار پتاسیم محلول خاک را نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند و بیشترین افزایش به مقدار 228 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم مربوط به کود گوسفند بود. مقدار پتاسیم تبادلی با کاربرد انواع بقایای آلی از 70 تا 730 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم افزایش یافت. مقدار پتاسیم غیرتبادلی نیز با کاربرد همه بقایای آلی افزایش یافت و بیشترین مقدار مربوط به کود مرغ و کمترین آن مربوط به کود شتر بود. به‌طورکلی افزودن ترکیبات آلی مقدار پتاسیم محلول و تبادلی را در خاک‌ داراب و مقدار پتاسیم غیرتبادلی را در خاک سپیدان بیشتر تحت اثر قرار داد. حالت رطوبت اشباع سبب افزایش پتاسیم تبادلی و کاهش پتاسیم محلول و غیرتبادلی گردید. افزایش مقدار پتاسیم محلول و افزایش شوری خاک بایستی در کاربرد این ترکیبات آلی در خاکهای دارای پتانسیل آبشویی بالا و برای کشت گیاهان حساس به شوری در نظر گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Different Plant Residues and Manures on Potassium Pools Distribution of Two Clayey Soils under Different Moisture Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Najafi-Ghiri 1
  • S Nowzari 2
  • NH Niksirat 2
  • L Soleimanpur 2
1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Range and Watershed Management, College of Agric. and Natural Res. of Darab, Shiraz Univ., Iran
2 M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agroecology, College of Agric. and Natural Res. of Darab, Shiraz Univ., Iran
چکیده [English]

Addition of organic residues to soil in organic farming may change soil K status and subsequently its availability and cycling. For this purpose, an experiment was done as factorial in completely randomized design with application of 11 organic materials (alfalfa, barley, pea and broad bean residues and sheep, cow, camel, poultry, pigeon and quail manures and vermicompost) in two clayey soils of Darab and Sepidan (Fars province) under two moisture conditions (field capacity and saturation) with three replicates. First, 2 g of organic materials was added to 100 g of soil samples and incubated for two months under field capacity and saturation conditions and laboratory condition (22±2˚C) and then the contents of soluble, exchangeable and non-exchangeable K were determined. Results indicated that all organic materials, except for vermicompost, alfalfa residue and camel manure increased soluble K and the highest increase was related to sheep manure up to 228 mg kg-1. The content of exchangeable K was increased with all organic residues application from 70 to 730 mg kg-1. The content of non-exchangeable K was also increased with organic residues application and the highest and lowest increases were found for poultry manure and camel manure, respectively. Generally, the contents of soluble and exchangeable K of Darab soil and non-exchangeable K of Sepidan soil were more affected by organic materials application. The saturation condition increased exchangeable K and decreased soluble and non-exchangeable K. Increase in the content of soluble K and soil salinity should be considered for organic amendments application to soils with high leaching potential and for salt sensitive plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Exchangeable K
  • Non-exchangeable K
  • Palygorskitic soils
  • Smectitic soils
  • Soluble K

 

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