تأثیر کاربری‏ های کشاورزی، باغ و جنگل بر شاخص کیفیت خاک در استان آذربایجان‏غربی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

کاربری اراضی تأثیر چشمگیری بر ویژگی‏های خاک‏ها داشته و آگاهی از این ویژگی‌های برای حفظ پایداری زیست‌بوم و افزایش بهره ‏وری خاک ضروری است. در این تحقیق اثر کاربری زراعی، باغ سیب و جنگل بلوط (باسابقه‏ بیش از 30 سال) بر خواص شیمیایی برخی  خاک‏ها در استان آذربایجان‏غربی موردبررسی قرار گرفت. برای انجام این مطالعه، در مجموع 75 نمونه خاک در کاربری‏های مختلف به‌صورت کاملاً تصادفی از عمق سطحی 20-0 سانتی‏متری برداشت و برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی خاک‏ها اندازه‏گیری و شاخص کیفیت خاک (SQI) در کاربری‏های مختلف تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد که میزان مواد آلی (8/2%) و نیتروژن کل خاک (20/0%) در کاربری جنگل بیشتر از دو کاربری باغ و زراعت بود. فسفر قابل‌استفاده در خاک کاربری باغ (2/16میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم) بیشتر از خاک کاربری زراعی (6/12میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم) و آن نیز‌ بیشتر از خاک کاربری جنگل (6/10میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم) بود که می‏تواند نشان‏دهنده‏ مصرف مقادیر بالای کودهای فسفاته در کاربری باغ نسبت به بقیه کاربری‏ها باشد. مقادیر واکنش خاک، هدایت الکتریکی و میزان کربنات کلسیم معادل در خاک کاربری جنگل نسبت به مقادیر آن‌ها در خاک کاربری‌های زراعی و باغی کمتر بودند. نتایج ارزیابی شاخص کیفیت خاک (SQI) نشان داد شاخص‌های مواد آلی، pH و فسفر قابل‌استفاده به‌عنوان MDS، بالاترین تأثیر را در ارزیابی کیفیت خاک‌های موردمطالعه داشتند. شاخص کیفیت خاک در خاک‏های جنگلی (4/1) به‌طور معنی‏داری بالاتر از کاربری باغی (3/1) و زراعی (2/1) بود. چنین استنباط می‏گردد تأثیر کاربری‏های موردمطالعه بر ویژگی‌های کیفی خاک می‏تواند به‌واسطه‏ میزان ورودی مواد آلی و فعالیت‏های کشت و کار تشدید گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Agronomic, Orchard and Forest Land Uses on Soil Quality Index (SQI) in West Azerbaijan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • MH Rasouli-Sadaghiani 1
  • F Sheikhloo 2
چکیده [English]

Land use has considerable effect on soil properties and awareness of these properties is necessary to preserve ecosystem stability and increase the soil productivity. In this study, the effects of agronomic (alfalfa and wheat), orchard (apple) and forest (chestnut) land uses (over 30 years) on soil chemical properties in West Azerbaijan province were evaluated. About 75 soil samples were randomly collected from surface soil of each land use for the depth of 0-20 cm and some of their chemical properties as well as the soil quality index (SQI) of the soil of each land use were determined. Results showed that the soil organic carbon (2.8%) and total nitrogen (0.20%) in forest land use were significantly higher than those in the other land uses. Available phosphorous in the soil of the apple orchards (16.2 mg kg-1) was higher than those in the soils of the agronomic (12.6 mg kg-1) and forest (10.6 mg kg-1) land which can be attributed to the high phosphorous fertilizer application in the orchards. The amounts of pH, EC and CaCO3 in soil of the forest land use were less than those in soils of the other land uses. Assessment of soil quality index (SQI) showed that organic carbon, pH and available phosphorous as minimum data set (MDS) had the highest effect on quality of studied soils. Soil quality index in the forest land use (1.4) was significantly higher than those in the orchard (1.3) and agronomic (1.2) land uses. It is concluded that the land use effects on the soil qualitative propertise can be intensified with the organic matter input rates and tillage activities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic
  • Forest
  • Land use
  • Orchard
  • Soil quality index
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