عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metal pollution in soil, plants and groundwater is important. This study was done to investigate the effect of leonardite in changing the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils derived from different parent materials including Syenite, Schist, Gabbro and Calcite. Analyses of the physico-chemical properties and clay mineralogy of soils were carried out. Chemical forms of the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in presence of the leonardite (0, 2, and 5%) were evaluated using sequential extraction method. The results showed that the quality and quantity of the clay minerals were different and the smectite mineral was dominant at different ratios of the leonardite. However, the vermiculite (42%) and hydroxy interlayer vermiculite (HIV) (82%) minerals were observed in the schist and calcite-derived soils, respectively. Leonardite application decreased the pH value in the derived soils from Syenite. The result showed that the chemical form of heavy metals in different soils was significantly affected by the leonardite levels. Pb and Cd chemical species were different in each soil type. The maximum amounts of the exchangeable Pb and Cd were observed in the syenite and gabbro, and the syenite soil, respectively. Leonardite decreased the elements related to the oxides Fe- and Mn, whereas the organic carbon based section was significantly increased by the leonardite application. Also leonardite reduced the amounts of the residual fraction of heavy metal in soil. Accordingly, leonardite behavior varied in different soils and its application should be based on the physico-chemical properties of soil.