تأثیر کمپوست تولید شده از زباله شهری مشهد بر سبز شدن و رشد گیاهچه‌های گوجه‌فرنگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شیروان

چکیده

کمپوست تولید شده از زباله به عنوان یک منبع جایگزین کودهای شمیایی برای افزایش حاصل­خیزی خاک و تولید محصول شناخته شده است. در این مطالعه قابلیت کمپوست تولید شده از زباله شهری برای بهبود جوانه­زنی و رشد گیاهچه­های رشد یافته در خاک گلدان بررسی شد. چهار تیمار بر اساس نسبت­های اختلاط کمپوست تولیدشده از زباله شهری با خاک در نسبت­های 1 به 5/2, 1 به 5, 1 به 5/7 و 1 به 10 در این آزمایش با شاهد (خاک باغی) مقایسه شد. تجزیه­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی مخلوط­های مختلف انجام گرفت. رشد گیاه, تولید بیوماس و مقدار عناصر پر مصرف (N, P, K, Ca, Mg)، عناصر کم مصرف (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, B) و فلزات سنگین (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co) در گیاه و خاک تعیین شد. حضور کمپوست pH، هدایت الکتریکی، جرم حجمی محیط رشد، مقدار عناصر کم­مصرف و پرمصرف و فلزات سنگین در گیاه و خاک را افزایش داد. اما غالب این پارامترها تحت تأثیر مقدار کمپوست در محیط رشد قرار نگرفتند. بیشترین میزان جوانه­زنی, رشد گیاهچه و وزن خشک ریشه و ساقه در نسبت اختلاط کمپوست و خاک 1 به 5 مشاهده شد. اما نسبت اختلاط 1 به 5/2 کمپوست و خاک کمترین میزان جوانه زنی و رشد گیاهچه­های گوجه­فرنگی در میان تیمارها دارا بود. ترکیبات سمی و عدم توازن در عناصر غذایی می­توانند مسئول اثرات بازدارندگی کمپوست بر گیاهچه­ها باشند. افزودن کمپوست به محیط رشد مقدار عناصر غذایی و فلزات سنگین در گیاه را افزایش داد. کاربرد مقادیر زیاد کمپوست تولید شده از زباله ممکن است اثرات زیانباری را بر محصولات داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Municipal Compost on Germination and Growth of Tomato Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • WR Asgharipour 1
  • M Rafiei 2
چکیده [English]

Compost has been identified as an alternative chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production. In this study the capacity of the compost produced from urban wastes to enhance seedling emergence grown in potting soil was investigated. Four treatments were compared based on the addition of increasing quantities of compost to soil (1:2.5, 1:5, 1:7.5, 1:10 compost to soil ratio, v/v). Physical and chemical analyses of the different mixtures were made. Plant growth, biomass production, macronutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metal contents of plant and soil were determined. The addition of compost increased pH, electrical conductivity (EC) of substrates, and macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), micronutrients )Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, B) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co) of plants and substrates. The highest germination, growth rate, shoots and roots dry weights were obtained with the medium prepared by mixing rate of 1:5 compost and soil. The mixture with 1:2.5 rate had the lowest germination and growth of tomato seedling. Both toxic constituents and nutrient imbalances may be responsible for the growth-inhibiting effects of the municipal compost in the treatment. The addition of compost to growth media increased plant nutrient and heavy metal contents of plants. Excess adding of municipal compost to agricultural soil may lead to deleterious effects on crops.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compost quality
  • Germination index
  • Municipal compost
  • Tomato

بهمنی ف، 1383. تأثیر شیرابه حاصل از کمپوست زباله­های شهری بر خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گندم. پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد رشته خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

خوشگفتار منش ا و کلباسی م، 1381. اثر باقیمانده شیرابه بر ویژگی­های خاک و رشد و عملکرد گندم. علوم و فنون کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، جلد 6: صفحه­های 141تا 148.

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