تعیین سهم فرسایش‌های سطحی و زیرسطحی در تولید رسوب با استفاده از روش منشأیابی در حوزه آبخیز مرگن - ماکو

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

3 مرکز تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری

چکیده

به دلیل‌ وجود مشکلات زیاد در کاربرد روش­های‌ سنتی (نظیر میخ­ها و کرت­های فرسایشی)‌، روش منشأیابی به‌ عنوان‌ روشی جایگزین‌ و مناسب برای‌ تعیین‌ سهم منابع‌ رسوب در تولید رسوب مورد توجه ‌محققین‌ مختلف‌ قرار گرفته‌ است. در این روش‌، خصوصیات فیزیکی‌، ژئوشیمیایی‌ و آلی‌ رسوب و منابع رسوب برای‌ تعیین‌ منابع‌ اصلی‌ رسوب و اهمیت نسبی‌ آنها مورد مقایسه قرار می گیرند. در روش یاد شده با استفاده از ترکیبی مناسب از خصوصیات جدا کننده منابع‌ رسوب، سهم هر کدام منابع رسوب در تولید رسوب تعیین می شود. در این تحقیق، سعی شده­است با بهره­گیری از ترکیبی مناسب از عناصر ژئوشیمیایی، رادیواکتیو، کربن آلی، نیتروژن و فسفر در حوضه مرگن پلدشت واقع در شهرستان ماکو در استان آذربایجان غربی، سهم فرسایش­های سطحی و زیرسطحی در تولید رسوب تعیین شود. بعد از برداشت 106 نمونه معرف از خاک­های سطحی و زیرسطحی و شش نمونه رسوب از انتهای حوضه نسبت به اندازه گیری ردیاب­های یاد شده اقدام شد. با بهره­گیری از روش تجزیه تابع تشخیص، چهار ردیاب کربن آلی (OC)،  کروم (Cr)، سزیم 137 (Cs137) و فسفر (P) به عنوان ترکیب مناسب انتخاب شدند. در آخر با استفاده از ترکیب یاد شده و مدلهای چند متغیره ترکیبی سهم فرسایش­های سطحی و زیرسطحی در تولید رسوب به ترتیب برابر با 65/30 و 35/69 درصد بدست آمد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining Erosion Types Contributions to the Sediment Yield Using Sediment Fingerprinting Method (Case study: Margan watershed, Makoo)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sh Hakimkhani 1
  • H Ahmadi 2
  • J Ghayoumian 3
چکیده [English]

Because of many problems associated with traditional procedures for identifying sediment sources, fingerprinting techniques, based on physical, chemical and organic properties of sediment and source materials, are increasingly being used as a valuable and effective alternative approach to assembling such information. In this method, a suitable composite (set) of diagnostic properties and a multivariate mixing model are employed to estimate the relative contribution of sediment sources to the sediments transported to basin outlet. In this study, using suitable composites of geochemical elements, radionuclides, organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous, capable of discriminating surface and subsurface erosions of the study basin, and a multivariate mixing model were used to determine contributions of those erosion types to the sediment yield. The suitable composite fingerprints (elements) were obtained using discriminant analysis. The study basin is Margan watershed of Pouldasht, located in Makoo township, West Azarbaijan province. The suitable composite fingerprints having capability to distinguish the above mentioned erosion types include OC, Cr, 137Cs and P. Mean contributions from the two main erosion types, namely surface erosions (sheet and rill erosions) and subsurface erosions (gully, channel and river bank erosions) were estimated as 30.65% and 69.35% respectively. Low mean absolute errors (less than 13%) show high degree of agreement between measured and predicted properties. High model efficiencies (greater than 0.99) confirm the goodness of fit of the mixing models. Also it is argued that fingerprinting estimates for sediment sources are consistent with field observations. Although a number of limitations must be recognized, the fingerprinting approach to source ascription has high efficiency to determine relative importance of sediment sources (surface and subsurface erosions) in the study basin.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Discriminant function analysis
  • Fingerprinting
  • Margan
  • Sediment sources
  • Topsoil and subsoil erosions
  • Tracers
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