اثرات تناوب زراعی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و عملکرد گندم دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تبریز

2 موسسه تحقیقات دیم کشور (مراغه) بخش تحقیقات مدیریت منابع

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات تناوبهای زراعی مختلف بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و عملکرد گندم دیم، سه مکان
در سریهای خاک سهند، رجل آباد و داراب منطقه مراغه- هشترود انتخاب گردید. در هر یک از این مکانها چهار
به مدت (T و گندم- آیش( 4 (T گندم- آیش- گندم- گندم-گندم ( 3 ،(T گندم- نخود ( 2 ،(T سیستم تناوبی کشت ممتد گندم ( 1
1382 ) اعمال شد. در خرداد ماه سال 1387 نمونههای دست خورده و دست نخورده خاک از - پنج سال زراعی ( 1387
20 سانتیمتری تهیه گردید. در این نمونهها، تعدادی از خصوصیات - 10 و 40 -20 ،0- تمامی تیمارها در سه عمق 10
قابل استفاده و Zn و Cu ،Mn ،Fe ،K ،P و CEC ،OC ،CCE ،EC ،pH ،Db ،WAS ، KS ، فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک (بافت
و (GS و 87 GS54 ،GS32 ،GS نیتروژن کل) اندازه گیری شد. همچنین رطوبت خاک در چهار مرحله از دوره رشد گندم ( 21
2/01 ) و cm hr-1) T و 3 T در تیمارهای 1 KS عملکرد بیولوژیکی در اواخر خرداد ماه اندازهگیری شد. کمترین مقدار
4/8 ) و کمترین mg Kg- 5/27 ) بدست آمد. بیشترین ( 1 cm hr-1) T 4/89 ) و 4 cm hr-1) T بیشترین مقدار آن در تیمارهای 2
به طور معنی T و 3 T حاصل شد که با تیمارهای 2 T و 1 T 3/9 ) مقدار آهن قابل استفاده به ترتیب در تیمارهای 4 mg Kg-1)
(p< 0/ به دست آمد که به طور معنیداری ( 05 T 71/6% ) در تیمار 4 ) WAS اختلاف داشتند. بیشترین مقدار (p<0/ داری ( 05
(p< 0/ 1/15 ) به طور معنیداری ( 05 g cm-3) T 1/16 ) و 4 g cm-3) T در تیمارهای 2 Db . با تیمارهای دیگر اختلاف نشان داد
T 1/29 ) کاهش نشان داد. مقدار بیوماس گیاهی در تیمارهای 2 g cm-3) T 1/29 ) و 3 g cm-3) T در مقایسه با تیمارهای 1
1/57 ) متفاوت t ha-1) T 1/50 ) و 3 t ha-1) T با تیمارهای 1 (p<0/ 3/05 ) به طور معنیداری ( 05 t ha-1) T 3/10 ) و 4 t ha-1)
بود. در دیگر خصوصیات اندازهگیری شده و رطوبت خاک اختلاف معنیداری بین تیمارها مشاهده نشد. بر اساس نتایج
حاصله، کشت ممتد گندم به جای تناوب گندم- نخود یا گندم- آیش، ریسک پس روی اراضی و به خصوصدر طولانی
مدت زوال کیفیت خاک را به همراه خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Crop Rotation Effects on Soil Physico-chemical Properties and Rain Fed Wheat Crop Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Rahmati 1
  • MR Neyshabouri 1
  • Sh Oustan 1
  • V Feiziasl 2
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of various crop rotations on soil physical and chemical properties in
drylands, three sites with Sahand (Fluventic Haploxerepts), Rajol Abad (Typic- Calcixerepts), and
Darab (Calcic Haploxerepts) soil series were chosen in Maragheh and Hashtroud, North West of
Iran. The treatments including continuous wheat cropping (T1), wheat–chickpea rotation (T2),
wheat-fallow-wheat-wheat-wheat (T3) and wheat–fallow rotation (T4), were executed for 5
cropping years from autumn 2003 to summer 2008. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples from 0-
10, 10-20, and 20-40 cm depths were taken at these sites on June 2008. Selected soil physical and
chemical properties such as texture, pH, EC, carbonate calcium equivalent (CCE), wet-aggregate
stability (WAS), bulk density (Db), organic carbon (OC), saturation hydraulic conductivity (Ks),
CEC and concentration of available P, K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and total nitrogen were measured by
common laboratory methods. For assessing the moisture content soil samples were taken at four
growth stages of wheat. Sampling for assessing the biomass was carried out at harvest (late June
2008). The lowest Ks occurred in T1 and T3 (2.01 cm.hr-1) and had significant difference with T2
and T4. The highest (4.79 mg kg-1) and lowest (3.88 mg kg-1) Fe concentration occurred in T4 and
T1, respectively, which significantly (p< 0.05) differed from those of other treatments. Soil WAS in
T4 (71.54%) became significantly (p<0.05) greater than those of other treatments. Db in T2 (1.16 g
cm-3) and T4 (1.15 g cm-3) was significantly (p< 0.05) lower than T1 (1.29 g cm-3) and T3 (1.29 g
cm-3). Biological yield in T2 (3.096 t. ha-1) and T4 (3.052 t. ha-1) significantly (p< 0.05) differed
from that of T1 (1.501 t. ha-1) and of T3 (1.573 t. ha-1). In other measured properties and soil
moisture content no significant differences among treatments were appeared. Based on the results,
alteration from wheat-fallow or wheat-chickpea rotation to continuous wheat cropping, may

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aggregate stability
  • Crop rotation
  • Hydraulic conductivity
  • Plant biomass
  • Soil quality
بنائی م ح، ۱۳۷۷ . نقشه رژیم های رطوبتی و حرارتی خاک های ایران. انتشارات موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب.
تهران. ایران.
حکیمی م، ۱۳۶۸ . مطالعات خاکشناسی اجمالی منطقه هشترود – استان آذربایجانشرقی. انتشارات مؤسسه
. تحقیقات خاک و آب. نشریه فنی شماره ۷۶۷ . صفحه ۸۰
سیدقیاسی م ف، ۱۳۷۰ . مطالعه خاکشناسی تفصیلی اراضی ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم مراغه. مرکز تحقیقات
. کشاورزی استان آذربایجانشرقی. صفحه ۲۷
20 شماره 1/ سال 1389 / 84 رحمتی، نیشابوری و ... مجله دانش آب و خاک/ جلد 1
فیضی اصل و، ۱۳۸۷ . گزارش نهایی بررسی اثرات کود سبز در خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و قابلیت تولید
. خاک. انتشارات موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم. نشریه شماره ۲۱۴ . صفحه ۱۰۶
Ankeny MD, Kaspar TC and Horton R, 1990. Characterization of tillage and traffic effects on
unconfined infiltration measurement. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54: 837-840.
Azevedo, DMP, Landivar J, Viera RM and Moseley D, 1999. The effect of cover crop and crop
rotation on soil water storage and on sorghum yield. Pesq Agropec Bars Brasilia 34: 391-
398.
Barber SA, 1972. Relation of weather to the influence of hay crops on subsequent corn yields
on a Chalmers silt loam. Agric J 64: 8-10.
Benson GO, 1985. Why the reduced yields when corn follows corn and possible management
responses. Pp. 971-972. Proceeding annual corn and sorghum industry research conference,
American Seed Trade Association, Chicago.
Biederbeck VO, Campbell GA, Bowren KE, Schnitzer M and Mclver RN, 1980. Effect of
burning cereal straw on soil properties and grain yields in Saskatchewan. Soil Sci Soc Am J
44: 103-111.
Blair, N, Faulkner RD, Till AR, Crocker GJ and Prince KE, 2002. The effects of crop rotation
and plant residue on soil structure. Pp. 1-162, 17th WCSS, Symp. No. 3, 14-21 August 2002,
Thailand.
Bremner, JM and Mulvaney CS, 1982. Nitrogen-Total. Pp. 595-622. In: Page AL (ed.).
Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Second Edition.
Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, WI., USA.
Carter JL and Hartwig EE, 1962. The management of soybeans. Advance Agronomy 14: 359-
412.
Dalal RC, Strong WM, Weston EJ, Cooper JE, Wildermuth GB, Lehane KJ, King AJ and
Holmes CJ, 1998. Sustaining productivity of a Vertisol at Warra, Queensland, with
fertilisers, no-tillage, or legumes. 5. Wheat yields, nitrogen benefits and water-use efficiency
of chickpea-wheat rotation. Aus J Exp Agr 38: 489-501.
Dao TH, 1993. Tillage and winter wheat residue management effects on water infiltration and
storage. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57: 1586-1595.
Dick WA and Vandoren JDM, 1985. Continuous tillage and rotation combinations effects on
corn, soybean, and oat yields. Agric J 77: 459-465.
Dick WA, Vandoren JDM, Triplett JGB and Henry JE, 1986. Influence of long-term tillage and
rotation combinations on crop yield and selected soil parameters. II. Results obtained for a
Typic Fragiudalf soil. Res Bull 1181. Ohio Agric Res Dev Cent, Wooster, OH.
Garya P and Sims JR, 1994. Legume cover crops in fallow as an integrated crop livestock
alternative in the northern and central Great Plains. Research and Extension Center,
University ofWyoming. USA.
اثرات تناوب زراعی بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک و عملکرد گندم دیم 85
Gee GW, 2002. Particle size analysis. Pp. 201-414. In: Jacob HD and Topp GC (ed). Methods
of Soil Analysis. Part 4. Physical Methods. Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, WI, USA.
Griffith DR, Kladivko EJ, Mannering JV, West TD and Parsons SD, 1988. Longterm tillage and
rotation effects on corn growth and yield on high and low organic matter, poorly drained
soils. Agric J 80: 599-605.
Grossman RB and Reinsch TG, 2002. The solid phase. Pp. 201-414. In: Jacob HD and Topp GC
(ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4. Physical Methods. Soil Sci Soc A., Madison, WI. ,
USA.
Hamblin AP, 1985.The influence of soil structure on water movement, crop root growth, and
water uptake. Adv Agric 38:95-158.
Hernanz JL, Lopez R, Navorrete L and Sanchez-Giron V, 2002. Long-term effects of tillage
systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid
central Spain. Soil Till Res 66:129-141.
Jackson ML (1985). Soil Chemical Analysis: Advanced Course. A Manual of Methods Useful
for Instruction and Research in Soil Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Soil, Soil Fertility,
and Soil Genesis. 2end Edition. Board of Regents of the university of Wisconsin System.
USA.
John RN and Kim SP, 2002. Aggregate stability and size distribution. Pp. 201-414. In: Jacob
HD and Topp GC (ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4. Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc.
A., Madison, WI., USA.
Jones OR, Hauser VL and Popham TW, 1994. No-tillage effects on infiltration, runoff, and
water conservation on dry-land. Trans ASAE 37: 473-479.
Katsvairo T, Cox WJ and Harold VE, 2002. Tillage and rotation effects on soil physical
characteristics. Agric J 94: 299-304.
Kemper WD, 1993. Effects of soil properties on precipitation use efficiency. Irrig Sci 14: 65-73.
Klute A and Dirksen C, 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: Laboratory methods. Pp:
687-734. In: Klute A (ed.). Method of Soil Analysis. Part 1, 2. Agron Monogr 9. ASA and
SSSA, Madison, WI. USA.
Knudsen D and Peterson GA, 1982. Lithium, Sodiom, and Potassium. pp. 225-245. In: Page AL
(ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Second Edition. In: Chemical and Microbiological
Properties. Second Edition. Soil Sci Soc Am Madison, WI., USA.
Lal R, Mahboubi AA and Fausey NR, 1994. Long-term tillage and rotation effects on properties
of central Ohio soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58: 517-523.
Lindsay WL and Norvel WA, 1978. Development of DTPA Soil test for zinc, iron, manganese
and copper, Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 421–428.
Lopez BL, Lopze FJG, Fuentes M, Castillo JE and Fernandez EJ, 1997. Influence of tillage,
crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic matter and nitrogen under rain fed
Mediterranean condition. Soil Till Res 43: 277-293.
20 شماره 1/ سال 1389 / 86 رحمتی، نیشابوری و ... مجله دانش آب و خاک/ جلد 1
Nelson DW and Sommers LE, 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In:
Sparks, DL (ed.). Methods of Soil Analyses. Part 3. 961-1010. Chemical Methods. SSSA.
Madison, WI.
Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS and Dean LA, 1954. Estimation of available phosphorus in
soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA. Cire. 939. U.S. GOV. Print Office,
Washington, DC.
Osman AE, Ibrahim MH and Jones MA, 1990. The role of legumes in the farming systems of
the Mediterranean areas. Kluver Academic Publisher.
Peterson TA and Vargel GE, 1989. Crop yield as affected by rotation and nitrogen rate. I.
Soybean. Agro J 81: 727-731.
Power JF, 1990. Legumes and crop rotation. Pp. 178-204. In: Francis CA, Flora CB and king
LD (eds). Sustainable Agriculture in Temprete Zones; Wiley, NY.
Rachman A, Anderson SH, Ganter CJ and Thompson AL, 2003. Influence of long-term
cropping systems on soil physical properties related to soil erodibility. Soil Sci Soc Am J
67:637-644.
Rhodes JD, 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. Pp. 417-435. In:
Sparks DL (ed). Methods of Soil Analyses. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA. Madison, WI.
Roder W, Mason SC, Clegg MD and Kniefp KR, 1989. Yeild-soil relationships in sorghumsoybean
cropping systems with different fertilizer regimes. Agron J 81: 470-475.
Sainju UM, Lenssen A, Caesar-Tonthat T and Waddell J, 2006. Tillage and crop rotation effects
on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70: 668-678.
Stevenson FJ, 1985. Cycles of soil. In: Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL and MacCarthy
P (eds),. Geochemistry of soil humic in Soil, Sediment, and Water. Wiley, NY.
Sumner ME and Miller WP, 1996. Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficient. Pp.
1201-1230. In: Sparks DL (ed.). Methods of Soil Analyses. Part 3. Chemical Methods.
SSSA. Madison, WI.
Van Lierop W, 1990. Soil pH and lime requirement determination. Pp. 73-126. In: Westerman
RL (ed). Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. 3rd ed. Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, WI., USA.
Wilson GF, Lal R and Okigbo BN, 1982. Effects of cover crops on soil structure and on yield of
subsequent arable crops grown under strip tillage on an eroded Alfisol. Soil Till. Res. 2:
233-250.