تاثیر توام شیوه های کم آبیاری و کاربرد سوپرجاذب بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی، فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد گیاه ذرت

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد؛ گروه زراعت؛ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی؛ واحد کرج؛ کرج؛ ایران

2 استادیار؛ رشته آبیاری، گروه زراعت؛ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی؛ واحد کرج؛ کرج؛ ایران

3 استاد؛ گروه زراعت؛ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی؛ واحد کرج؛ کرج؛ ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی توام کم‌آبیاری معمولی و کم‌آبیاری موضعی از طریق روش آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک در میان و کاربرد پلیمر‌ سوپر‌جاذب بر خصوصیات گیاه ذرت، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج در سال زراعی 93-1392، اجرا گردید. در این آزمایش روش کم‌آبیاری معمولی در سه سطح شامل آبیاری با 100، 75 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و کم آبیاری موضعی در دو سطح شامل آبیاری تمام جویچه‌ای و جویچه‌ای یک در میان ثابت به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت‌های اصلی و پلیمر سوپر جاذب استاکوزورب در دو سطح شامل شاهد (عدم مصرف) و ‌‌مصرف سوپرجاذب به میزان 30 کیلوگرم در هکتار در کرت‌های فرعی انجام شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که عملکرد علوفه تر، خشک و بیولوژیک در روش آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک در میان با وجود 9/25 درصد کاهش آب آبیاری در طول دوره رشد نسبت به آبیاری تمام جویچه‌ای، تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. مصرف سوپر جاذب منجر به کاهش آب آبیاری به مقدار 4/13 درصد در طول دوره رشد گردید. بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب برای تولید علوفه خشک در تیمار آبیاری جویچه‌ای یک در میان با آبیاری کامل و کاربرد سوپر جاذب به دست آمد که نسبت به تیمار شاهد، 9/75 درصد افزایش داشت. در روش آبیاری تمام جویچه‌ای، متوسط کارایی مصرف آب برای تولید علوفه خشک و بیولوژیک به ترتیب 32/1 و 52/3 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب به دست آمد و در روش جویچه‌ای یک در میان به 75/1 و 31/4 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Simultaneous Impact of Deficit Irrigation Methods and Superabsorbent Polymer on Morphological, Physiological and Yield Characteristics of Corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Khalili 1
  • Fayaz Aghayari 2
  • Mohammad Reza Ardakani 3
1 M. Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the simultaneous impact of conventional and alternate-furrow deficit irrigation and superabsorbent polymer on characteristics of corn, a field experiment was carried out at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran, in 2013-2014 growing season. Conventional deficit irrigation with three levels including irrigation with 100, 75 and 50% crop water requirement, localized deficit irrigation with two levels including fixed alternate furrow irrigation and conventional furrow irrigation that were located in the main plots and superabsorbent polymer with two levels including control (non-use superabsorbent polymer Stockosorb) and use of superabsorbent (30kg/ha) that were located in the sub plots. The results showed the amount of fresh and dry forage yield and biological yield in fixed alternate furrow irrigation method were not different significantly as compared to the conventional furrow irrigation method, while the volume of irrigation water during the growing season in fixed alternate furrow irrigation decreased by 25.9 %. Superabsorbent consumption lead to reduced irrigation water at a rate of 13.4 % during the growth season. highest water use efficiency for dry forage yield (2.04 kg.m-3) was obtained in treatment of fixed alternate furrow irrigation in condition of moderate stress and used of superabsorbent, that increased by 75.9% as compared to control treatment and there was significant difference. In conventional furrow irrigation method, average of water use efficiency for dry forage yield and biological yield was obtained 1.32 and 3.52 kg.m-3, respectively; while in fixed alternate furrow irrigation was increased to 1.75 and 4.31 kg.m-3, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternate furrow
  • Drought Stress
  • Forage Yield
  • Irrigation method
  • Water Use Efficiency
Dabhi R, Bhatt N and Pandit B, 2013. Super absorbent polymers- an innovative water saving technique for optimizing crop yield. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science 2(10): 315-321.
Fazeli Rostampoor M, Seghatoleslami MJ and Moosavi SGHR, 2012. Effect of water stress and polymer (Superjazeb A200) on yield and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L.) in Birjand region. Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 4(1):11-19. (In Persian with English abstract)
Fazeli Rostampour M and Mohebbian SM, 2012. Studying the effects of irrigation deficit and superabsorbent polymer on remobilization of assimilates in corn (Zea mays L.). Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences 4(2):127-138. (In Persian with English abstract)
Hassanzadeh A and Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi E, 2016. Ecophysiological evaluation of three maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars under irrigation regimes and use of super absorbent. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology 10(1): 151-166. (In Persian with English abstract)
Heidary A, Choukan R, Tashakori A and Kalantari H, 2011. Effects of different levels of drought stress on yield and yield components of corn hybrids (Zea mays L.). Water and Soil 25(6): 1250-1263. (In Persian with English abstract)
Karimi A and Naderi M, 2007. Yield and water use efficiency of forage corn as influenced by superabsorbent polymer application in soils with different textures. Agricultural Research 7(3): 187-198. (In Persian with English abstract)
Kashiani P, Saleh G, Osman M and Habibi D, 2011. Sweet corn yield response to alternate furrow irrigation methods under different planting densities in a semiarid climatic condition. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(4):1032-1040.
Kirda C, Topcu S, Kaman H, Ulger AC, Yazici A, Cetin M and Derici MR, 2005. Grain yield response and N-fertilizer recovery of maize under deficit irrigation. Field Crops Research 93:132–141.
Krank H and Genkoglan C, 2003. Effects of deficit irrigation on the yield and growth of the succeeding corn crop under Harran Plain conditions. Ziraat- Fakultesi-Dergisi, Ataturk Universities 34(2): 117-123.
Kuhestani Sh, Askari N and Maghsudi K, 2010. Assessment effects of super absorbent hydrogels on corn yield (Zea mays L.) under drought stress condition. Iranian Water Research Journal 3(5):71-78. (In Persian with English abstract)
Li C, Sun J, Li F, Zhou X, Li Z, Qiang X and Guo D, 2011. Response of root morphology and distribution in maize to alternate furrow irrigation. Agricultural Water Management 98:1789-1798.
Moazzen Ghamsari B, Akbari G, Zohuriyan A and Nikniyaee MG, 2009. An evaluation of growth and yield of forage corn with application of different levels of super absorbent polymer (SUPERAB A200) and under drought stress. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 40(3):1-8. (In Persian with English abstract)
Mojadam M and Modhej A, 2012. Effect of nitrogen levels on water use efficiency, grain yield and yield components of corn under optimum and drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 10(3):546-554. (In Persian with English abstract)
Najafinezhad H, Tahmasebisarvestani Z and Modarres Sanavy SAM, 2015. Effects of two irrigation regimes and application of barley residue, zeolite and superabsorbent polymer on forage yield and some physiological traits of maize and sorghum. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 46(2):169-338. (In Persian with English abstract)
Nazarli H, Zardashti MR, Darvishzadeh R and Najafi S, 2010. The effect of water stress and polymer on water use efficiency, yield and several morphological traits on sunflower. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 2(4):53-58.
Rafiee M and Shakarami G, 2010. Water use efficiency of corn as affected by every other furrow irrigation and planting density. World Applied Sciences Journal 11(7):826-829.
Rezaei Sokht Abandani R, Charati Araei A, Akbari Nodehi D, Mobasser H and Ramezani M, 2009. Effects of irrigation interval and nitrogen degree on dry mater yield and water usage efficiency of corn in Mazandaran province. New Finding in Agriculture 3(2):122-136. (In Persian with English abstract)
Sajedi NA and Sajedi A, 2009. Effect of drought stress, mycorrhiza and zinc rates on agro-physiologic characteristics of maize cv. KSC704. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 43(11):202-222. (In Persian with English abstract)
Sepaskhah AR and Khajehabdollahi MH, 2005. Alternate furrow irrigation with different irrigation intervals for maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Production Science 8(5):592-600.
Sepaskhah AR and Ghasemi M, 2008. Every-other-furrow irrigation with different intervals for sorghum. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11(9):1234-1239.
Sheikhi M, Sajedi NA and Jiriae M, 2009. Effects of water deficit stress on agrophysiological traits hybrids of maize. New Finding in Agriculture 3(3):275-287. (In Persian with English abstract)
Valifar A, Moafpoorian Gh, Tadayon MS and Ashraf Mansouri Gh, 2013. The effect of deficit irrigation and alternate furrow irrigation method on morphological and physiological characteristics of corn. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology 5(14):45-58. (In Persian with English abstract)
Yazar A, Gokcel F and Sezen MS, 2009. Corn yield response to partial root zone drying and deficit irrigation strategies applied with drip system. Plant and Soil Environment 55 (11): 494–503.