عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Stepped gabion spillways have many applications in dam structure, river engineering and soil conservation works. These types of weirs have more flexibility in respect to rigid (impervious) type and are more stable against water pressure. Energy dissipation through this weir is high due to over flow and inflow from steps, so the cost of stilling basin construction can be reduced. Flowing water through the body of weir is one of its important characteristics that make flow condition more complex. Most of the researches until now were on rigid stepped weir in large dams and there are a few studies on gabion stepped spillways. The purpose of this study is to investigate flow over and through the gabion stepped spillway body and determine energy dissipation rate. For this purpose 8 physical gabion stepped spillways with 3 different porosities 38 to 42 percent and two slopes 1:1 & 1:2 (V:H) were made and iron plate on each horizontal or vertical step was used to study the effect of step pervious on energy dissipation. Results show that at higher discharge, energy dissipation is more in pervious (gabion) spillway. In fact at higher discharge or skimming flow regime, energy dissipation divided in to over flow and inflow through the spillway body. In this situation energy dissipation through the spillway body have more effect on total energy dissipation. Thus in skimming flow regime, gabion stepped spillway will have greaterenergy dissipation. At lower discharge, energy dissipation is more in impervious stepped spillway. In this condition other rank belongs to gabion, step with vertical plate and step with horizontal plate respectively. Gabion with higher porosity had bigger energy dissipation and with increasing in discharge, their differences tend to zero. Slope decreasing from 1:1 to 1:2 causes more energy dissipation.