تأثیر محتوای رطوبتی خاک بر تولید رواناب و هدررفت خاک از شیارها در کرت‌های آزمایشی صحرایی در دامنه‌های با شیب مختلف

نویسندگان

دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

محتوای رطوبتی خاک، عامل فیزیکی مهمی در اغلب فرآیندها مانند نفوذپذیری و فرسایش خاک است. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی تأثیر محتوای رطوبتی خاک بر رواناب و کنده شدن خاک از شیارهادر دامنه‌های با خاک­های درشت‌دانه در منطقه نیمه­خشک انجام شد. برای این منظور جویچه­های کشت با طول 6 متر در پنج کشتزار با شیب­های متفاوت (1/6، 6/10، 8/14، 7/20 و1/ 27 درصد) با چهار سطح رطوبتی شامل هواخشک (AD)، بین ظرفیت مزرعه و هواخشک (FC-AD)، ظرفیت مزرعه (FC) و رطوبت اشباع (SP) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار احداث شدند. برای بررسی هدررفت خاک در دامنه­ها از جریانی با دبی ثابت 2 لیتر بر دقیقه استفاده شد. خاک­ دامنه­ها دارای بافت درشت (با 56 تا 75 درصد شن) و سنگی (از 22 تا 57 درصد)، با ساختمان ضعیف و نفوذپذیری زیاد بودند. نتایج نشان داد که در دامنه‌های با شیب 1/6، 8/14 و 7/20 درصد با افزایش رطوبت خاک، هدررفت خاک کاهش می­یابد. بیش­ترین مقدار هدررفت خاک (گرم بر مترمربع در ثانیه) به­ترتیب در رطوبت­های FC-AD (01/0)، AD (306/0) و AD (0045/0) مشاهده شد. با افزایش محتوای آب خاک، پیوستگی توده خاک افزایش یافت و بخش عمده رواناب به‌صورت زیرسطحی در شیارها جاری شد و در نتیجه رواناب سطحی و انتقال ذرات در شیارها کاهش یافت. این پژوهش نشان داد که در دامنه­های با بافت درشت­دانه با افزایش محتوای رطوبتی خاک، هدررفت خاک به­شدت کاهش می­یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Soil Water Content on Runoff Production and Soil Loss from Rills in Field Experimental Plots in Different Slopes

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Haghani
MSc. Student, Soil Sci. Dept., Faculty of Agric., University of Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil water content (SWC) is an important physical factor that plays an essential role in many processes such as infiltration and soil erosion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of SWC on runoff and soil detachment from rills in coarse-grained soils in the semi-arid region. For this purpose, furrows with 6 m in length were installed in five rainfed farms with different slope steepness (6.1, 10.6, 14.8, 20.7 and 27.1%) treated with four moisture levels including air-dried (AD), between air-dried and field capacity (AD-FC), field capacity (FC) and saturation point (SP) in a completely randomized design witht three replications. Flow rate with a discharge of 2 L min-1 was used to investigate soil detachment from the farms. The soils were coarse texture (having 56-75% sand) and rocky (having 22-57%) with unstable structure and high infiltration rate. Based on the results, soil detachment decreased with increasing SWC in 6.1, 14.8 and 20.7 % slopes. The highest soil detachment rate (g m-2s-1) in these lands was observed in AD-FC (0.01), AD (0.306) and AD (0.0045), respectively. By increasing SWC, the continuity and stability of soil mass of furrow increased, and runoff occurred mostly as subsurface flow in the rills. Surface runoff as well as the soil particle detachment decreased in the rills. Therefore, in the semi-arid slopes with coarse-grained soil, soil detachment rate decreases with increasing SWC.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gravel
  • Soil texture
  • Saturation moisture
  • Soil Structure
  • soil permeability
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