بررسی تنوع و تکامل خاک در سطوح مختلف ارتفاعی دامنه غربی کوهستان تالش

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

تغییرات مکانی ویژگی­های خاک تابع عوامل محیطی مانند اقلیم، توپوگرافی، ماده مادری و پوشش گیاهی است. توپوگرافی از طریق سه عامل ارتفاع، زهکش طبیعی و شیب باعث تفاوت­های معنی­دار در ویژگی­های خاک می­شود. این تحقیق به­منظور بررسی اثر ارتفاع بر برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی، نوع و فراوانی کانی­های رس و در نهایت میزان تکامل خاک­های یک نیمرخ ارتفاعی واقع در کوهستان تالش در استان اردبیل انجام گرفت. تعداد 5 خاکرخ در سطوح پایدار حفر و پس از مطالعات صحرایی، آزمایش­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و کانی­شناسی رس بر روی نمونه­ها انجام­گرفت. نتایج نشان­داد که در سطوح مختلف ارتفاعی، شدت هوادیدگی و نوع فرایندهای خاک­سازی متفاوت بوده و تأثیر شدیدی بر برخی ویژگی­های خاک از جمله مقدار رس، شکل­های مختلف آهن، کانی­ها و رده­بندی خاک دارد. با کاهش ارتفاع، از میزان کانی­ ایلیت کاسته­شده، ولی بر مقدار کانی اسمکتیت افزوده می­شود که این امر دلیلی بر هوادیدگی و تکامل خاک می باشد. نتایج نشان­داد که اراضی مرتفع دارای خاک­های اینسپتی­سول با درجه تکامل کم بوده ولی اراضی پایکوهی دارای خاک­های تکامل یافته تر ورتی­سول و مالی­سول هستند. علاوه بر این، در نیمرخ ارتفاعی مورد مطالعه با کاهش ارتفاع، اقلیم گرمتر می­شود و به تبع آن شدت فرایندهای خاک­ساز افزایش می­یابد. افزایش مقدار آهن بلورین (Fed–Feo)، به عنوان شاخص تکامل­خاک، از 9/2303 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم در قله کوه تا 7558 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم در پای کوه این روند تکاملی را به خوبی نشان می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Soil Diversity and Evolution in Different Elevation Surfaces of Western Hillsides of Talesh Mountain

نویسندگان [English]

  • afshin mohammadi 1
  • Ali Asghar Jafarzadeh 2
  • shahin oustan 2
  • Farzin Shahbazi 3
1 Ph.D student, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Prof, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Spatial variability of the soil properties is related to the environmental factors such as climate, topography, parent material and vegetation. Topography causes significant differences in soil properties through the three factors of elevation, natural drainage and slope. This research was carried out to investigate the effect of elevation on some physical and chemical characteristics, type and content of the clay minerals, and finally on the evolution of soils of an elevation profile in Talesh Mountain in Ardabil province. Following excavation and description of five profiles on non-eroded surfaces, physical, chemical and clay mineralogy experiments were performed on the samples. The results showed that weathering intensity and type of pedological processes were different and hada significant effect on some soil characteristics such as clay content, different forms of iron, minerals and soil classification at the different surfaces of elevation. With decreasing the altitude, the amount of illite minerals was reduced but the amount of smectite minerals has increased, which is a reason for the improved weathering and evolution of the soils. The results show that toeslope lands have evolved soils of Vertisols and Mollisols, but highlands have Inceptisols with low degree of evolution. Addition, in the studied elevation profile, as the altitude decreases, the climate becomes warmer and consequently the intensity of pedogenic processes increases.The increase in the amount of crystalline iron (Fed-Feo), as an indicator of soil evolution, from 2303.9­ mg ­kg-1 at the topslope to 7558­ mg ­kg-1 at the toeslope of the mountain illustrates this evolutionary trend.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Clay mineralogy
  • Elevation profile
  • Iron forms
  • Soil properties
  • Topography
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