اندازه‌گیری و شبیه‌سازی حرکت آب و جذب ریشه در مدیریت آبیاری هوشمند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

پژوهش جاری با هدف بکارگیری روابط حاکم مربوط به هیدرولیک جریان در محدوده ریشه گیاه و استفاده از فن­آوری نوین روز در خصوص ابزارهای میدانی اندازه­گیری رطوبت و مکش رطوبتی خاک محدوده ریشه گیاه جهت پایش پیوسته عوامل مربوطه و مدیریت هوشمند سامانه آبیاری در راستای  مصرف بهینه آب انجام یافته است. این تحقیق در باغ­های سعیدآباد تبریز در دو سال متوالی 1397 و 1398 انجام گردید. با استفاده از دستگاه ثبت داده 20 کاناله، محدوده ریشه از طریق حسگرهای رطوبتی ابزار بندی گردیده و داده­های لحظه­ای رطوبت خاک محدوده ریشه از طریق اینترنت به سرور انتقال و با این روش امکان مشاهده آنلاین داده ها تحت وب و ذخیره اطلاعات را مهیا نمود. در این پژوهش با تجهیز تیمار تحت مطالعه به سامانه آبیاری قطره­ای تحقیقاتی با امکان تغییر عوامل هیدرولیکی شامل کنترل دبی تیمارهای مختلف اجرا و با برداشت مستمر داده­ها، شکل و الگوی خیس شدگی واقعی خاک در زمانهای مختلف حاصل و درجه صحت تئوریها و روابط تجربی موجود صحت سنجی گردید. میزان جذب حداکثر در عمق 20 سانتیمتر بود که مصرف روزانه معادل 50-30 لیتر محاسبه شد. در این تحقیق از نرم افزار HYDRUS-2D  جهت شبیه سازی سناریوی های مختلف استفاده شد. مهمترین مسئله در این نرم افزار واسنجی ضرایب معادلات حاکم می­باشد. در این تحقیق مدل­های مربوط به پارامترهای حرکت و جذب ریشه بر اساس اندازه­گیری­های میدانی دقیق واسنجی و تایید شد (RE =2.87 و %NRMSE=2.14). بر اساس نتایج، حرکت آب و مصرف گیاه محاسبه و ارائه گردید. بر این اساس نتایج تطابق الگوی خیس شدگی با محدوده ریشه گیاه در جهت مدیریت سامانه استفاده و نهایتا صرفه جویی در مصرف آب مشخص گردید. بیشترین مقدار جذب آب در عمق 40 سانتیمتر انجام شده است که این مقدار 74 درصد کل جذب می باشد با کنترل این پروفیل از خاک می­توان سامانه آبیاری هوشمند را مدیریت نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measurement and Simulation of water flow and root uptake in Smart Irrigation Management

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Bahojb Khoshnoudi 1
  • S Besharat 2
  • K Zeinalzadeh 2
1 Ph.D. student of Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran
2 Associate professor, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Iran
چکیده [English]

               Current research with the purpose of applying the governing equations related to hydraulics of flow in plant root zone and use of modern technology in field measurements for measuring soil water content and soil suction of the plant root zone for continuous monitoring of relevant factors and smart management of irrigation system in order to optimized use of water consumption has been done. This research was carried out in Saeed Abad Gardens in Tabriz in two consecutive years, 1977 and 1998. Using a 20-channel data logger, the root zone was instrumented with soil moisture sensors and the soil moisture instantaneous data were transmitted to the server via the Internet, allowing online data viewing and data storage provided. In this study, by equipping the treatment under study to research drip irrigation system with ability of changing hydraulic parameters including controlling the discharge rate of different treatments and by continuously data logging, the actual soil wetting pattern and shape at different times obtained and the accuracy of the theories and experimental relationships were validated. Maximum absorption was at 20 cm depth and daily intake was calculated to be 30-50 liters. In this study, HYDRUS-2D software was used to simulate different scenarios. The most important issue in this software is to calibrate the governing equations coefficients. In this study, models related to root motion and absorption parameters were calibrated and validated based on accurate field measurements (RE = 2.87 and NRMSE = 2.14 %). Based on the results, water movement and plant consumption were calculated and presented. Accordingly, the results of matching the wetting pattern with the root zone of the plant were used to manage the system and ultimately save water consumption. The highest amount of water uptake was at 40 cm depth, which is 74% of the total water uptake. By controlling this soil profile, an intelligent irrigation system can be managed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation management
  • Root water uptake
  • Water content
  • Wetting pattern
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