تأثیر قارچ Trichoderma virens و سیلیسیم بر برخی ویژگی‌های گندم در شرایط شور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

تنش شوری یکی از عوامل محدود کننده تولیدات کشاورزی به­ویژه در نواحی خشک و نیمه­خشک جهان است.بهره­گیری از ریزجاندارانی همچون  تریکودرما و کاربرد سیلیسیم از راه­کارهای مورد استفاده در کاهش اثر تنش­های محیطی مانند شوری است. برای بررسی اثرهای تلقیح قارچ تریکودرما ویرنس و کاربرد سیلیسیم بر رشد و برخی ویژگی­های گیاه گندم تحت تنش شوری آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو سطح قارچ (با و بدون مایه­زنی)، دو سطح سیلیسیم (0 و 5/1 میلی­مولار) از منبع سیلیکات سدیم و سه سطح نمک (0، 18 و 31 میلی­اکی­والان نمک در کیلوگرم خاک از کلرید سدیم، کلسیم و منیزیم با نسبت ترکیبی1:2:3، به ترتیب معادل شوری در عصاره اشباع خاک 4/3-2/3، 2/7-9/6 و 9/9-5/9 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) بود. نتایج نشان­دهنده تأثیر منفی شوری بر رشد گندم بود. سطوح 18 و 31 میلی­اکی­والان نمک در کیلوگرم خاک به­طور معنا­دار در سطح احتمال یک درصد سبب کاهش ارتفاع گیاه، شاخص کلروفیل، تعداد دانه در سنبله، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت و سایر خصوصیات اندازه­گیری شده گردید. اثرمتقابل شوری، قارچ و سیلیسیم بر شاخص کلروفیل، وزن سنبله، تعداد دانه در سنبله، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت معنا­دار (p<0.05) بود. عملکرد بیولوژیکی کاهش 11 درصدی در سطح شوری E3 نسبت به سطح شوری E1 نشان داد. بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک در سطح شوری E1 و در حضور قارچ و سیلیسیم و کمترین آن در سطح شوری E3 و بدون حضور قارچ و سیلیسیم مشاهده شد. تنش شوری باعث کاهش 59 درصدی عملکرد دانه شد. اثر متقابل سیلیسیم، قارچ و شوری بر عملکرد دانه معنادار نبود اما باعث افزایش عملکرد دانه (6/17درصد) در سطح شوری E3 شد. کاربرد توأم قارچ و سیلیسیم در سطح شوری3E موجب افزایش 16درصدی شاخص برداشت نسبت به همین سطح شوری بدون حضور قارچ و سیلیسیم گردید. برپایه این نتایج افزودن سیلیسیم و مایه­زنی خاک با این قارچ می­تواند با تعدیل اثر شوری، در بهبود عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه در شرایط شور مؤثر واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Trichoderma virens and Silicon Application on Some Properties of Wheat under Saline Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Tahmasebi Sha-mansoure 1
  • N Enayatizamir 2
  • A Rahnama-Ghahfarokhi 3
  • M Chorom 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate, Dept., of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof., Dept., of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof., Dept., of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
4 Prof., Dept., of Soil Sci., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salinity stress is recognized as an important constraint that limits agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. Application of microorganisms such as Trichoderma isolates and silicon is an effective and easily adaptive strategy to reduce the environmental stresses like salinity. In order to evaluate silicon effect and Trichoderma virens inoculation on growth and some properties of wheat grown under saline condition a factorial experiment with complete randomized design was arranged. The factors included two levels of fungus (with and without inoculation), two levels of Si (0 and 1.5 mM), as Na2SiO3, and three levels of salt (0, 18 and 31 Meq kg-1 salt supplied as NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 with 3:2:1 proportion, equivalent to soil saturated electrical conductivity (ECe) amounts of (3.2-3.4), (6.9-7.2) and (9.5-9.9) dS m-1, respectively). The results showed a negative effect of salt stress on wheat growth. Both 18 and 31 Meq kg-1 of the added salts caused significant reductions (p<0.01) on plant height, chlorophyll content, grain number, grain yield, harvest index and other measured properties. Salinity, fungus and silicon interaction effects on chlorophyll content, grain number, grain weight, harvest index and biological yield were significant (p<0.05). Biological yield was decreased 11% at third level of salinity (E3) as compared with first level of salinity (E1). The most biological yield was obtained at first level of salinity (E1) in the presence of fungus and silicon and the least one was obtained at third level of salinity (E3) with no fungus and silicon application. Salinity stress caused 59 percent reduction in grain yield. Salinity, fungus and silicon interaction effects were not significant on grain yield but caused increment in grain yield (17.6%) at the third level of salinity (E3). Application of fungus and silicon together caused 16 percent increment in harvest index at third level of salinity (E3) as compared with the case of no fungus and silicon application at the same salinity level. Based on these results the addition of silicon and inoculation of soil with this fungus could improve the yield and quality of wheat by adjusting the soil salinity effect.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Harvest index
  • Height
  • Grain Yield
  • salinity
  • Wheat
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