بررسی وقوع فرارفت در طول فصل رشد گیاهان زراعی بهاره و پاییزه در منطقه کرکج تبریز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

        به­دلیل وجود فرارفت گرمایی، توازن انرژی در مزارع پوشیده از گیاه به­هم ریخته و مقداری انرژی اضافی از طریق جریان گرما از اراضی بدون پوشش گیاهی به طرف سطوح پوشیده گیاهی جریان می­­یابد و باعث افزایش تبخیر- تعرق می­گردد. مطالعه حاضر برای بررسی وقوع پدیده فرارفت گرمایی در مزرعه ذرت به­عنوان یک گیاه کشت بهاره و گندم زمستانه به­عنوان کشت پاییزه در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز انجام شده است. گیاهان زراعی فوق در داخل لایسیمتر مستقر در وسط مزرعه 6/1 هکتاری کشت گردید و تبخیر- تعرق آنها در طول فصل رشد اندازه­گیری شد. برای بررسی وقوع فرارفت گرمایی از روش­هایی نظیر بیلان انرژی در سطح مزرعه، تعیین ضریب پریستلی- تیلور، نسبت مقدار تبخیر-تعرق حاصل از فرارفت به تبخیر- تعرق از سطوح پوشش گیاهی (Rad) و نسبت باون در روزهای مختلف پس از کاشت استفاده شد. نتایج اندازه­گیری دمای هوا نشان داد که بین مزرعه لایسیمتر و نواحی اطراف گرادیان دمای محسوسی برقرار است. مقادیر منفی جریان گرمای محسوس، نسبت باون و Radدر برخی از روزهای فصل رشد گیاهان مورد بررسی نشان داد که انرژی اضافی حاصل از فرارفت بر تبخیر- تعرق گیاهان مؤثر بوده است. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر فرارفت بر تبخیر- تعرق گیاه ذرت بیشتر از گندم می­باشد. در منطقه مورد مطالعه به­جز فرارفت منطقه­ای، به­دلیل کوچک بودن قطعات زیرکشت، متفاوت بودن زمان­های آبیاری مزارع مجاور و آیش بعضی از قطعات، فرارفت محلی نیز می­تواند به­وقوع بپیوندد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Advection Occurrence in the Spring and Fall Crops Growing Season in Karkaj region, Tabriz

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Majnooni heris 1
  • AA sadraddini 2
  • AH nazemi 2
  • R delir hassannia 2
1 Assoc. Prof, Dept. of Water Engineering, Univ. of Tabriz, Iran
2 Prof, Dept. of Water Engineering, Univ. of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Due to advection phenomenon, energy balance in vegetation covered fields' changes and some additional energy is transferred from the barren lands to vegetation covered sites by air sensible heat flux. This phenomenon increases the evapotranspiration. The present study was conducted to investigate the advection occurrence in the field of maize as a spring crop, and winter wheat as a fall crop at the Agriculture Faculty Research Station of Tabriz University. Mentioned crops for were planted in a 1.6 hectares’ farm, equipped with a lysimeter at its middle, for two years. These crops' evapotranspiration was measured by the lysimeter during the growing season of each plant. The advection phenomenon occurrence was investigated using the methods of energy balance in the field surface, Priestly-Taylor coefficient, the ratio of evapotranspiration obtained from advection energy to vegetation surface evapotranspiration (Rad) and Bowen's ratio () on different days after planting of each crop. Observation data of the temperature showed that there was a sensible heat gradient between the lysimeter and surrounding areas. Negative values of the sensible heat flux, Rad and Bowen ratio on some days of plants growing season showed that the advection extra energy had affected the crops evapotranspiration values. Results showed that the advection effect on maize evapotranspiration was more than that on wheat evapotranspiration. In the study region except of regional advection, local advection could be occurred due to small size of cropped fields, different irrigation schedule and depth of adjacent farms, and fallow duration of some farms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Advection
  • Energy Balance
  • evapotranspiration
  • Maize
  • Tabriz
  • Wheat
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