Afrasiabi B, Adhami E and Owliaei HR, 2017. Effect of biochar produced at different temperatures on cadmium availability in a calcareous soil under different moisture regims over time. Journal of Water and Soil 30(3): 811-821. (In Persian with English absteract)
Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, Vithanage M, Lee SS and Ok YS, 2014. Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere 99:19-33.
Albert HA, Li X, Jeyakumar P, Wei L, Huang L, Huang Q, Kamran M, Shaheen SM, Hou D, Rinklebe J and Liu Z, 2021. Influence of biochar and soil properties on soil and plant tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb: A meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment 755:142582.
Arabyarmohammadi H, Darban AK, Abdollahy M, Yong R, Ayati B, Zirakjou A and van der Zee SE, 2018. Utilization of a novel chitosan/clay/biochar nanobiocomposite for immobilization of heavy metals in acid soil environment. Journal of Polymers and the Environment 26(5): 2107-2119.
Arabyarmohammadi H, Darban AK, van der Zee SE, Abdollahy M and Ayati B, 2017. Fractionation and leaching of heavy metals in soils amended with a new biochar nanocomposite. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25(7): 6826-6837.
Baghaie AH, 2018. Interaction effect of municipal waste compost and pistachio residues biochar on decreasing cadmium stress in Shallot (A case study: Zarandieh municipal waste compost). Journal of Health 9(3): 277-290. (In Persian with English absteract)
Baghaie A, 2019. Effect of applying Shazand municipal compost waste and Saveh pomegranate peel biochar on decreasing Pb availability in soil and Sorghum plant. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment 11 (2):157-168. (In Persian with English absteract)
Beesley L, Moreno-Jimenez E, Gomez-Ey les JL, Harris E, Robinson B and Sizmur T, 2011. A review of biochars potential role in the remediation, revegetation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environmental Pollution 159 (12): 3269-3282.
Biria M, Moezzi AA and AmeriKhah H, 2017. Effect of Sugarcane bagasses biochar on maize plant growth, grown in lead and cadmium contaminated soils. Water and Soil 31(2): 609-626.
Boostani H and Najafi-Ghiri M, 2018. Effect of biochar and natural zeolite application on desorption kinetic and chemical fractions of zinc in a Zn-contaminated calcareous soil. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production 8(1): 69-88. (In Persian with English absteract)
Boostani HR, Najafi-Ghiri M and Hardie AG, 2019. Single and competitive adsorption isotherms of some heavy metals onto a light textured calcareous soil amended with agricultural wastes-biochars. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 65(3): 360-373.
Cao XD, Ma LN, Gao B and Harris W, 2009. Dairy-manure derived biochar effectively sorbs lead and atrazine. Environmental Science and Technology 43:3285–3291.
Chen D, Liu X, Bian R, Cheng K, Zhang X, Zheng, J, Joseph S, Crowley D, Pan G and Li L, 2018. Effects of biochar on availability and plant uptake of heavy metals–A meta-analysis. Journal of Environmental Management 222:76-85.
Dai Y, Liang Y, Xu X, Zhao L and Cao X, 2018. An integrated approach for simultaneous immobilization of lead in both contaminated soil and groundwater: Laboratory test and numerical modeling. Journal of Hazardous Materials 342: 107-113.
Dianat Maharluei Z, Yasrebi J, Sepehri M and Ghasemi R, 2018. Effect of rice husk biochar and Piriformospora indica endophytic fungus on corn yeild in Zn contaminated soil. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production 8(3): 61-78. (In Persian with English absteract)
Fathianpour A, Taheriyoun M and Soleimani M, 2018. Lead and zinc stabilization of soil using sewage sludge biochar: optimization through response surface methodology. Clean - Soil, Air, Water 46(5):170429.
Feng W, Zhang S, Zhong Q, Wang G, Pan X, Xu X, Zhou W, Li T, Luo L and Zhang Y, 2020. Soil washing remediation of heavy metal from contaminated soil with EDTMP and PAA: Properties, optimization, and risk assessment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 381, 120997.
Gao X, Peng Y, Zhou Y, Adeel M and Chen Q, 2019. Effects of magnesium ferrite biochar on the cadmium passivation in acidic soil and bioavailability for packoi (Brassica chinensis L.). Journal of Environmental Management 251, 109610.
Gholami L and Rahimi G, 2020. The effect of carrot pulp derived biochar on the adsorption of cadmium and lead in an acidic soil, Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 27(2):1-23. (In Persian with English absteract)
Guo Y, Tang W, Wu J, Huang Z and Dai J, 2014. Mechanism of Cu (II) adsorption inhibition on biochar by its aging process. Journal of Environmental Science 26 (10): 2123-2130.
Haji Najafi O, Momayezi MR and Sheibani HA, 2016. Effect biochar on the absorption of lead in phytoremediation of contaminated soils by maize (Zea mays L.). Iranian Journal of Dynamic Agriculture 13(2): 107-115. (In Persian with English absteract)
Hamzenejad R, Sepehr E, Samadi A, Rasouli-Sadaghiani M and Khodaverdiloo H, 2018. Effect of apple pruning residue biochar on chemical forms, mobility factor index (MF) and reduced partition index (IR) of heavy metals in a contaminated soil. Water and Soil Science 28(3): 65-78. (In Persian with English absteract)
Hamzenejad R and Sepehr E, 2018. Heavy metals immobilization in contaminated soil by grape-pruning-residue biochar. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 64(8): 1041-1052.
Harvey OR, Herbert BE, Rhue RD and Kuo LJ, 2011. Metal interactions at the biochar-water interface: energetics and structure-sorption relationships elucidated by flow adsorption microcalorimetry. Environmental Science & Technology 45(13): 5550-5556.
He J, Yang Y, Christakos G, Liu Yand and Yang X, 2019. Assessment of soil heavy metal pollution using stochastic site indicators. Geoderma 337: 359-367.
Hu S, Wu Y, Yi N, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Xin XJES and Research P, 2017. Chemical properties of dissolved organic matter derived from sugarcane rind and the impacts on copper adsorption onto red soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24 (27): 21750-21760.
Jafari M, Moameri M, Jahantab E and Zargham N, 2017. Effects of municipal solid waste compost and biochar on the phytoremediation potential of Bromus tomentellus Boiss. in greenhouse conditions. Rangeland 11(2): 194-206. (In Persian with English absteract)
Kabiri P and Hosseinpur A, 2018. Phytoremediation potential of Maize (Zea mays L.) using biochars produced from walnut leaves in a contaminated soil. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation 25(4): 133-152. (In Persian with English absteract)
Kaihanynejad R and Amirinejad A, 2018. Investigating the effect of zeolite, sunflowers biochar and activated carbon on Pb stabilization in soils with different characteristics. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research 49(3): 573-581. (In Persian with English absteract)
Karimi F, Rahimi G, Kolahchi Z and Nezhad AKJ, 2020. Using industrial sewage sludge-derived biochar to immobilize selected heavy metals in a contaminated calcareous soil. Waste and Biomass Valorization 11(6): 2825-2836.
Kaur R, Bhatti SS, Singh S, Singh J and Singh S, 2018. Phytoremediation of heavy metals using cotton plant: a feld analysis. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 101(5):637–643.
Kelley K and Preacher KJ, 2012. On effect size. Psychological Methods 17 (2): 137–152.
Kim HS, Kim KR, Kim HJ, Yoon JH, Yang JE, Ok YS, Owens G and Kim KH, 2015. Effect of biochar on heavy metal immobilization and uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in agricultural soil. Environmental Earth Sciences 74(2): 1249-1259.
Li H, Lu X, Xu Y and Liu H, 2019. How close is artificial biochar aging to natural biochar aging in fields? A meta-analysis. Geoderma 352: 96-103.
Liu BY, Zhao X, Li SS, Zhang XZ, Virk AL, Qi JY, Kan ZR, Wang X, Ma ST and Zhang HL, 2020. Meta-analysis of management-induced changes in nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat in the North China Plain. Journal of Cleaner
Production 251: 119632.
Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M and Stewart LA, 2015. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews 4(1): 1-9.
O'Connor D, Peng T, Zhang J, Tsang DC, Alessi DS, Shen Z, Bolan NS and Hou D, 2018. Biochar application for the remediation of heavy metal polluted land: a review of in situ field trials. Science of the Total Environment 619:815-826.
Rahimi T, Moezzi A and Hojati S, 2018. The Effects of different levels of cow manure and its biochar on the kinetics of nickel adsorption in a calcareous soil. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences 22 (1): 199-209. (In Persian with English absteract)
Rahimi T, Moezzi A and Hojatti S, 2019. Effect of biochar and nickel levels on concentration of nickel and some micronutrients in corn. Iranian Journal of Soil Research 32(4): 527-536. (In Persian with English absteract)
Roohi R, Jafari M, Jahantab E, Aman MS, Moameri M and Zare S, 2020. Application of artificial neural network model for the identification the effect of municipal waste compost and biochar on phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 208: e106399.
Saffari M, 2018. Chemical stabilization of some heavy metals in an artificially multi-elements contaminated soil, using rice husk biochar and coal fly ash. Pollution 4(4): 547-562.
Saffari M, 2019. Evaluation of cadmium behavior in a calcareous soil as affected by Walnut-Shell residues biochars coated by nanoscale zero-valent iron. Iran Soil and Water Research 50(6): 1437-1451. (In Persian with English absteract)
Sefidgar Shahkolaie S, Barani Motlagh M, Khormali F and Dordipour E, 2018. Immobilization of lead in a calcareous contaminated soil using organic and inorganic amendments. Water and Soil 32(1): 127-142. (In Persian with English absteract)
Sefidgar Shahkolaie S, Baranimotlagh M, Khormali F and Dordipour E, 2019. Effects of some organic and inorganic amendments on the bioavailability and distribution of different fractions of lead and cadmium in a calcareous contaminated soil. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Soil Science and Agricultural Mechanization 41(4): 15-29. (In Persian with English absteract)
Sefidgar Shahkolaie S, Baranimotlagh M, Khormali F and Dordipour E, 2020. Evaluation of the effect of organic and inorganic amendments on lead and cadmium bioavailability in calcareous soils. Iranian Journal of Research in Environmental Health 6(1):70-82. (In Persian with English absteract)
Shah V and Daverey A, 2020. Phytoremediation: A multidisciplinary approach to clean up heavy metal contaminated soil. Environmental Technology & Innovation 18: e100774.
Shen Z, Zhang Y, McMillan O, Jin F and Al-Tabbaa A, 2017. Characteristics and mechanisms of nickel adsorption on biochars produced from wheat straw pellets and rice husk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24: 12809–12819.
Soleimani M, Hajabbasi MA, Afyuni M, Akbar S, Jensen JK, Holm PE and Borggaard OK, 2010. Comparison of natural humic substances and synthetic ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid as washing agents of a heavy metal–polluted soil. Journal of Environmental Quality 39(3): 855-862.
Tavili A, Jahantab E, Jafari M, Motasherzadeh B and Zargham NA, 2018. Remediation of contaminated soils with heavy metal of Pb using rangelands plants in the greenhouse condition. Journal of Plant Research 31(3): 663-675. (In Persian with English absteract)
Tian X, Wang D, Chai G, Zhang J and Zhao X, 2021. Does biochar inhibit the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of As and Cd in co-contaminated soils? A meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment 762: e143117.
Tomczyk A, Sokołowska Z and Boguta P, 2020. Biochar physicochemical properties: pyrolysis temperature and feedstock kind effects. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology 19: 191-215.
Trakal L, Bingöl D, Pohořelý M, Hruška M and Komárek M, 2014. Geochemical and spectroscopic investigations of Cd and Pb sorption mechanisms on contrasting biochars: Engineering implications. Bioresource Technology 171: 442-451.
Valizadeh Ghale Beig A, Nemati H, Emami H and Aroie H, 2020. The effect of cutflower-rose waste biochar on morphological traits and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Syaho). Journal of Soil and Plant Interactions 10 (4): 21-35. (In Persian with English absteract)
Wang J, Xiong Z and Kuzyakov Y, 2016. Biochar stability in soil: meta‐analysis of decomposition and priming effects. GCB Bioenergy 8(3): 512-523.
Xia Y, Liu H, Guo Y, Liu Z and Jiao W, 2019. Immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils by modified hydrochar: Efficiency, risk assessment and potential mechanisms. Science of the Total Environment 685: 1201-1208.
Xu C, Chen H, Xiang Q, Zhu H, Wang S, Zhu Q, Huang D and Zhu Y, 2018. Effect of peanut shell and wheat straw biochar on the availability of Cd and Pb in a soil–rice (Oryza sativa L.) system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25: 1147-1156.
Yuan C, Gao B, Peng Y, Gao X, Fan B and Chen Q, 2020. A meta-analysis of heavy metal bioavailability response to biochar aging: importance of soil and biochar properties. Science of the Total Environment e144058.
Yuan JH, Xu RK and Zhang H, 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresource technology 102(3): 3488-3497.
Zahedifar M, 2018. Iron fractionation in the calcareous soils of different land uses as influenced by biochar. Waste and Biomass Valorization 11(5):1-10.
Zama EF, Reid BJ, Arp HPH, Sun GX, Yuan HY and Zhu YG, 2018. Advances in research on the use of biochar in soil for remediation: a review. Journal of Soils and Sediments 18 (7): 2433-2450.
Zand AD, Tabrizi AM and Heir AV, 2020. Incorporation of biochar and nanomaterials to assist remediation of heavy metals in soil using plant species. Environmental Technology & Innovation 20: e101134.
Zhang J, Hua P and Krebs P, 2017. Influences of land use and antecedent dry-weather period on pollution level and ecological risk of heavy metals in road-deposited sediment. Environmental Pollution 228: 158–168.
Zhou T, Li L, Zhang X, Zheng J, Zheng J, Joseph S and Pan G, 2016. Changes in organic carbon and nitrogen in soil with metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn: a meta‐analysis. European Journal of Soil Science 67(2): 237-246.