1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و مهندسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
2 استاد علوم و مهندسی باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
3 استاد بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
4 دانشجوی دکترای بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objective
In recent decades, agricultural production has relied heavily on the use of chemical inputs, which has led to major environmental problems. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has led to the destruction of water and soil resources, reducing the population and diversity of soil microbes, water and air pollution, increasing the resistance of pests and pathogenes to various chemical pesticides, etc. One of the solutions to this problem is to use the principles of sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture is an integrated system based on ecological principles and in this system, plant residues, animal manures, organic and bio-fertilizers are used instead of chemical compounds such as fertilizers and pesticides. In addition to supplying nutrients in the soil, it leads to weed and pest controlling and increases the microbe’s biodiversity in soil. Useful soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi play an important role in the nutrients cycling, especially phosphorus and some other trace elements in ecosystems and plant protection against environmental and agricultural stresses. The fungal hyphae often extend into the portion of the soil that is not penetrated by roots or root hairs, and led to increase the absorption of water and nutrients for the plant. Endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica also has a wide range of host plants by colonizing their roots and stimulates the growth of its host plants and increases their yield. The use of these fungi in nutrient-poor soils increases the growth and yield of agricultural products along with reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual herb of the Apiaceae or Umbelliferae families, native to the Mediterranean region that has been cultivated since human antiquity. In addition to its oral application, this plant also has healing properties and is also considered as a medicinal plant. Coriander consumption is recommended in the treatment of various infectious diseases such as typhoid fever and various diseases in general. The shoots of this plant contain essential oils and active ingredients, and decanol is the main components of its essential oil. Whereas global approaches to the production of medicinal plants are aimed at improving the quantity and quality of the active ingredient of medicinal plants, healthy nutrition of these plants through eco-friendly approaches such as the use of biological fertilizers, is the most consistent with the goals of sustainable agriculture and leads to improved quantitative and qualitative yield of these plants. Accordingly, the study of the effect of beneficial soil fungi (mycorrhizal and endophytic) on vegetables such as coriander due to their high consumption by humans seems necessary. Therefore, in this study the effect of inoculation of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Diversispora versiformis and Rhizophagus irregularis) and one species of endophytic fungus (Piriformospora indica) individually and/or in combinations on the chemical composition and production of coriander essential oil was investigated.
The treatments were included single fungus inoculation (RI: R. irregularis, DV: D. versiformis, PI: P. indica), integrated fungal inoculations (PI+DV, PI+RI, RI+DV and PI+RI+DV), positive control treatment (with urea fertilizer and triple superphosphate, without fungus), and the negative control (no chemical fertilizer, no fungus). The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in greenhouse conditions. Fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, percentage of root colonization, leaf phenol, antioxidant compounds, carotenoids, total chlorophyll and essential oil were measured in coriander plant.
The results showed that the effect of all three fungal species (mycorrhiza and endophyte) both separately and in combination on the measured parameters was significant (p <0.01). Combined treatment of three fungi (PI + RI + DV) showed the highest yield in fresh and dry weight of shoot part by 8.62% and 17.94%, respectively. In the case of fresh and dry weight of root part, DV treatment had the best performance by 22.66% and 48.04%, respectively. The root colonization increase (91.75%) in PI + RI, phenol (72.5%) in RI + DV, antioxidant componds (11.81%), total chlorophyll (7.81%) and carotenoids (5.87%) in PI, and essential oil yield (107.2%) in PI + DV were recorded. All increases reported above are in comparison with negative control treatment.
According to the results of this study, in order to achieve higher yield in coriander, it is better to use single treatments of mycorrhizal fungi. Also, based on the results of this experiment, to enhance the performance of mycorrhizal fungi to improve the growth and development of coriander, especially to improve the yield of essential oil, it is better to use a combination of mycorrhizal fungi and endophyte. It should be noted that the results of this experiment were obtained in greenhouse conditions and to finally confirm the effectiveness of the fungi used in this experiment, therefore further studies should be performed at the field conditions along with measuring more traits to provide clearer and applied results.