اثر تغییر آبیاری جویچه‌ای به قطره‌ای بر آب مصرفی، کارایی مصرف آب و برخی صفات رشدی بوته‌های انگور بیدانه سفید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثر تغییر شیوه آبیاری از جویچه‌ای ‌به قطره‌ای روی رشد طولی شاخه‌ها، کارایی مصرف آب و عمق توسعه ریشه، در تاک‌های رقم بیدانه سفید، آزمایشی در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار انجام شد. این تحقیق در سال‌های زراعی 94-1393 و 95-1394 و در شهرستان ملایر صورت گرفت. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل: آبیاری جویچه‌ای (I1)، آبیاری قطره‌ای به‌همراه جویچه‌ای (I2)، بابلر (I3)، قطره‌ای 1 –سه قطره‌چکان/بوته- (I4)، ترکیب قطره‌ای سطحی و زیر سطحی (I5)، قطره‌ای 2 –پنج قطره‌چکان/بوته- (I6) و قطره‌ای 3 –هشت قطره‌چکان/بوته- (I7) بود. نتایج نشان داد تاک‌هایی که به‌صورت قطره‌ای آبیاری شده بودند از نظر طول شاخه، سطح برگ و مصرف آب کاهش معنی‌داری نسبت به آبیاری جویچه‌ای داشتند. به‌طوری که میانگین پارامترهای اشاره شده در طول دوره آزمایش برای آبیاری جویچه‌ای (I1) طول شاخه 133 سانتی‌متر، سطح برگ 1/11 متر مربع در تاک و حجم آب مصرفی 5375 متر مکعب در هکتار بوده و در تیمارهای قطره‌ای این پارامترها به‌ترتیب 121، 5/6 و 3625 بدست آمد، هم‌چنین بین پارامتر‌های اشاره شده همبستگی مثبت وجود داشت. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای آبیاری I6 و I7 به‌ترتیب با 31 و 29 تن در هکتار نسبت به آبیاری جویچه‌ای با 24 تن در هکتار، عملکرد بیشتری را به خود اختصاص داده بودند، در حالی‌که سایر تیمارهای قطره‌ای عملکرد کمتری نسبت به تیمار جویچه‌ای داشتند. از نظر کارایی مصرف آب شیوه آبیاری I6 با 3/10 و آبیاری I1 با 9/4 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب آب مصرفی، به‌ترتیب بیشترین و کمترین کارایی را در سال دوم داشتند. توصیه می‌شود که در تغییر شیوه آبیاری تاک‌های مسن از جویچه‌ای به قطره‌ای، برای استفاده بهینه از منابع آب، از شیوه آبیاری قطره‌ای 2 (I6) با پنج قطره‌چکان در بوته استفاده شود. در انتهای آزمایش نمونه برداری‌های انجام شده از ریشه تاک نشان داد که شیوه‌های آبیاری قطره‌ای باعث سطحی شدن ریشه‌ می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Converting Furrow Irrigation to Drip on Water Consumption, WUE and Growth Traits of Sultana Grapevine

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of switching the furrow to drip irrigation methods on stem length, water used efficiency (WUE) and depth of root zone of Sultana grapevines, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with four replicates in 2015-2016 growing season in Malayer, Iran. Treatments were: furrow irrigation (I1), combination of drip and furrow irrigation system (drip-furrow) (I2), bubbler irrigation (I3), drip 1: three dripper/plant (I4), surface-subsurface drip irrigation (I5), drip 2: five dripper/plant (I6) and drip 3: -eight dripper/plant (I7). The results showed that the drip irrigation caused significant decrease in the shoot length, leaf area and water consumption compared to the furrow irrigation. In the same order, the average of the mentioned parameters for furrow irrigation were 133 cm, 11.1 m2/vine and 5337m3/ha respectively, and for the drip irrigation, 121 cm, 6.5 m2/vine and 3625 m3/ha. These results indicated that there was positive correlations (R2) between the mentioned parameters. The treatments I6 and I7 had a yield of 31 and 29 ton/ha respectively, exceeding the furrow irrigation with yield 24 ton/ha. However, the other drip irrigation treatments showed less yield than furrow irrigation. The maximum WUE was evidenced by I6 treatment (10.3 kg/m3) and the minimum by furrow irrigation (4.9 kg/m3). The results showed that I6 with five dripper/plant, was the most efficient treatment, so it was considered an appropriate irrigation method to change from furrow to drip irrigation. At the end of the experiment, samples were taken from the vine roots revealing that the drip irrigation systems caused shallow roots.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leaf Area
  • Root
  • RWC
  • Soil Moisture
  • Stem
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