بررسی تاثیر گسیلنده‌های کنترل کننده حجم آب بر روی وضعیت یکنواختی توزیع آب در سیستم خرد آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

عملکرد گسیلنده‌های موجود در سیستم‌های خرد آبیاری بر اساس استهلاک فشار بوده و عدم کارآیی آنها در تنظیم فشار و آبدهی یکنواخت توسط محققان گزارش شده است. در این پژوهش، با هدف ارتقای کارآیی گسیلنده‌ها در سیستم خرد آبیاری، گسیلنده‌های جدیدی به نام گسیلنده کنترل کننده حجم آب، طراحی و مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. 100 عدد گسیلنده­ در شرایط مزرعه در یک سیستم خرد آبیاری نصب و حجم آب خروجی تا زمان قطع جریان اندازه گیری شد. آزمایش­ها در پنج فشار شامل 5/0، 1، 5/1، 2 و 5/2 اتمسفر با سه تکرار انجام و در هر تکرار زمان قطع جریان گسیلنده­ها در پنج موقعیت شامل ابتدا، یک سوم، وسط، دو سوم و انتهای لوله لترال اندازه‌گیری  شد. در نهایت، نتایج به­دست آمده براساس استاندارد ASAE ارزیابی گردید. در آزمایش­های میدانی بیشینه مقدار ضریب تغییرات برابر 3/3 درصد در فشار 5/0 اتمسفر (فشار حداقل) به­دست آمد. بنابراین عملکرد سیستم در تمام فشارها در رده عالی ارزیابی گردید. همچنین حداقل ضرایب یکنواختی توزیع (6/%97­) و یکنواختی پخش (%91­) نیز در فشار حداقل 5/0 اتمسفر حاصل شدند که مقادیر بسیار مطلوبی می­باشند. در تمامی روابط دبی- فشار، نمای دبی تقریباً برابر 55/0 برآورد گردید. نوع جریان در گسیلنده‌ها آشفته بود. عملکرد مطلوب گسیلنده مذکور در ایجاد یکنواختی توزیع آب موید این مطلب است که تغییر نگرش در مورد مکانیسم کار گسیلنده‌ها و توسعه گسیلنده‌های جدید با مکانیسم کارآمد می تواند کارآیی سیستم های خرد آبیاری را ارتقاء دهد.    

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effect of Water Volume Control Emitters on Water Distribution Uniformity of the Micro-irrigation System

چکیده [English]

The performance of the existence emitters in micro-irrigation systems is on the basis of pressure dissipation and the inefficiencies of these systems in the pressure and discharge uniformity regulations have been reported by researchers. In this research, in order to improve emitters' efficiency in micro-irrigation systems, a new emitter named water volume control emitters was designed and evaluated. One hundred emitters were installed in the field condition on a micro-irrigation system and the applied water volume was measured until cutoff time. The experiments in pressures of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5bar with three repetitions were conducted. In each repetition, the cutoff time of the emitter located in five positions at the first, third, mid, two-thirds and end parts of the lateral pipe were measured. Finally, the obtained results were evaluated on the basis of ASAE standards. In the field experiments, the maximum value of variation coefficient was obtained 3.3% in the pressure of 0.5bar (minimum pressure). Therefore, the system performance was evaluated in the excellent category in the all applied pressures. Also, the minimum coefficients of distribution uniformity (97.6%) and emission uniformity (91%) were obtained in the minimum pressure of 0.5bar so that these values were very favorable. In all of the pressure-discharge equations, the discharge exponent values were approximately estimated 0.55. The type of flow in emitters was turbulent. The appropriate performance of the mentioned emitters in creating a favorable water distribution uniformity showed that the change of view about emitters' operational mechanism and the developing new emitters with efficient mechanism can improve the efficiency of micro irrigation systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Control valve
  • Emitter
  • evaluation
  • Micro irrigation
  • Uniformity
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