Mathematical View Point to the wind speed parameter role in the FAO PenmanMonteith Equation for Calculating ET0
MR
Hami Kouchebagi
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
AH
Nazemi
استاد- گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
استاد- گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
R
Delirhasannia
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
From the mathematical point of view, the FAO Penman-Monteith equation shows a homographic function related to the wind speed. The homographic function has horizontal and vertical asymptotes. In this issue horizontal asymptote is applicable; because the vertical asymptote occurs for negative values of wind speed but the negative sign indicates the direction of the wind speed and only the absolute values of the quantities are used. By increasing wind speed from zero, evapotranspiration will increase until it reaches to a limited asymptote value. This value is the horizontal asymptote of the fractional function of FAO Penman Monteith equation. In this research the effect of wind speed variations on the evapotranspiration amounts was analyzed, with considering the mathematical framework of the Penman-Monteith equation. Meteorological data from three weather stations, including Tabriz, Isfahan and Rasht were used in this research. Results showed that in the FAO Penman-Monteith equation, wind speed effect on evapotranspiration is nonlinear and variation in evapotranspiration amounts is more at low wind speeds than high values of wind speeds. As a general result, evapotranspiration has tended to asymptote homographic function and the rate of increasing in evapotranspiration is reduced by wind speed increasing.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
1
14
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4864_6065b5257ef963f5e686e4f842c4dc41.pdf
Evaluation of Different Design Options Impact on Seepage and Stability Analysis of Golfaraj Dam
K
Roushangar
دانشیار گروه آب دانشکده عمران دانشگاه تبریز
author
B
Rouhparvar
دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اهر
author
T
Sedaghati
دانشجوی کارسشناسی ارشد ژئو تکنیک دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Seepage in earth fill dams is one of the important factors that may cause the erosion and slope instability if it is ignored. Therefore, it is crucial to calculate the leakage discharge through the body of dam and foundation, to prevent economic and life hazards by considering technical and economical issues. In this research, the seepage analysis of the body and the stability of the upstream and downstream slopes of Golfaraj dam after construction, during steady state seepage, rapid drawdown of reservoir and OBE, MCE earthquakes have been investigated and compared by applying different limit state equilibrium methods including: Spencer, Bishop, Janbu, and Mohergenstren-Price, using built-in Geo studio software. The results showed that seepage discharge in a deep section without dike was 18.2 m3day-1 per unit width which was reduced in the case of applying a cutoff or a concrete blanket by 95 and 10 percent, respectively. Data obtained from the slope analysis indicated that the slope was stable under any circumstances and the limit equilibrium methods were convergent.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
15
30
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4865_1228cc2766418e5c99500c74ca6dad4e.pdf
Effect of Land Use Change from Rangeland to Agricultural Land on Soil
Fertility in Taftan Region
M
Ebrahimi
استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه زابل
author
S
Kashani
دانشآموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، دانشگاه زابل
author
E
Rouhimoghaddam
استادیار، گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشگاه زابل
author
text
article
2016
per
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rangeland conversion into agriculturalland use on soil properties in Taftan region (Sistan and Baluchestan province). Four land use typeswere selected including horticultural, irrigated alfalfa farm, abandoned rainfed agriculture andrangeland. Considering each land use area, soil samples (4-6) were taken from 0-30 cm depth in acompletely randomized design. Some soil properties such texture, pH, electrical conductivity,organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, labile carbon and CaCO3were measured. Results revealed that in the horticultural land use compared to the rangeland one,there was no significant difference among soil characteristics except for the phosphorus and labilecarbon factors, while labile carbon and phosphorus had higher amounts in the horticultural land use.The results revealed that just the nitrogen amount had a significant difference between the irrigatedfarm and rangeland and the level of nitrogen in irrigated farm was higher. The electricalconductivity amount had a significant difference in abandoned agriculture and the rangeland, assalinity in the abandoned agriculture was more. Analysis of variance showed that there weresignificant differences among the all properties of the soil in different land uses except phosphorus,potassium and CaCO3. The highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and organic carbon weremeasured in the irrigated farm. The highest amount of potassium and labile carbon were related tothe rangeland and the abandoned agriculture respectively. Generally, results of this study showedthat the land use change had significant effect on the soil properties. However, nitrogen, phosphorusand organic carbon were less in the rangeland than the agricultural land uses, land use change led todecrease and increase in salinity and CaCO3 respectively.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
31
44
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4867_e088e161e4af756d942b503bc1739852.pdf
Modeling of Flow Friction Factor in Irrigation Pipes using Machine Learning
Methods and Comparing with Empirical Equations
S
Samadianfard
استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
MT
Sattari
استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
The implicit Colebrook–White equation has been extensively used to estimate the friction factor ofturbulent flow in irrigation pipes. In the meantime, a practical and accurate solution for Colebrook–Whiteequation is, in particular, necessary for hydraulic computations of pressurized irrigation systems. In thispaper, the performance of some machine learning methods such as support vector regression (SVR), geneticprogramming (GP) and M5 model trees have been evaluated and compared to the empirical equations infriction factor estimation. The obtained results from statistical analysis of studied methods showed thatBuzzelli and Haaland empirical equations with root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.00002 and 0.00015,respectively and also genetic programming with RMSE of 0.00031, had better performances among theothers. Also, it was concluded that the M5 model trees and SVR with RMSE of 0.00204 and 0.00417,respectively, had lower accuracy in comparison with the empirical equations and genetic programmingmethods in estimating friction factor of irrigation pipes.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
45
57
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4868_47bb5920800b8b41f9d793d62b4fa447.pdf
An Experimental Study of Impact of Bridge Pier on Depth of Scour Hole in
Abutment
S
Memar
کارشناس ارشد سازههای آبی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Arvnaghi
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Many of bridge piers have been located in the vicinity of abutment and bridge supports. Localscour at the abutment nose is considered as one of the major factors in designing the abutments. Thepresence of bridge piers in the vicinity of abutments can affect the scour rate of them, due to thecreation of strong vortex flows between piers and abutment. Hence, this study investigates the impactof single bridge piers on the depth of scour hole in the abutment, experimentally. For this, in the firstcase, a single bridge pier and an abutment, and in the second, two tandem bridge piers and anabutment, were placed in the experimental channel. The piers and abutment were established at threedifferent distances (X), so that they can satisfy the constrain !"#$ = 3.5, (D: pier diameter, x: distancebetween pier and abutment). Results showed that in the second case study i.e. [two tandem bridgepiers and an abutment], presence of piers in most of experiments increased the scour depth inabutment. In the case of using single pier, the effect of pier on abutment scour depth is eithernegligible or decreasing. Generally, when the pier's diameter was about 50 percent of abutment'slength, the minimum depth of scour was reached, and when the diameter of pier was bigger thanabutment's length, maximum depth of scour in abutment was obtained.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
59
67
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4869_df483c772960e6bf2a4617e82b4a9e63.pdf
Determining Crop Coefficient of Corn and Bean in Intercropping in Order to
Increase the Precision of Irrigation Planning
D
Zarehaghi
استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Neyshabouri
استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Majnooni-Heris
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه تبریز
author
Z
Jalilian
دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Determination of plants evapotranspiration is one of the most important factors in promotingthe utilization of water resources in agriculture. This factor is indicative of the potential depletionrate from wet soil surface and vegetation; hence, it is important to be studied. This research hasbeen done to measure and estimate potential evapotranspiration, and single crop coefficients basedon intercropping of forage maize single cross 704 (Zea mays L.) cultivar and bean effort (Vicia fabaL.) cultivar, using the drainage Lysimeter, located in the research farm of the University of Tabriz.The potential evapotranspiration of intercropping was obtained, 967.37 mm during the growingseason. . In this research reference evapotranspiration was determined, 955.77 mm using FAOPenman-Monteith equation for the studied area. Length of intercropping growth periods in initial,development and final stages, were determined equal to 18, 37, 41 and 17 days, respectively. Alsothe amount of growing degree days at the same stages were 179, 567and 227, respectively. Singlecrop coefficient was obtained, for initial, middle and final growth stages equal to 0.67, 1.17 and1.09 respectively. Due to lack of crop coefficients for the case of intercropping, using the obtainedcoefficients are recommended for this type of crop irrigation scheduling.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
69
78
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4870_cd27979c6aafe6223e407b9d45d3c034.pdf
Effects of Nitrogen on Growth and Some Morphological Traits of Inoculated
Savory Plant (Satureja hortensis L.) with Azospirillum irakense and
Pseudomonas putida
N
Bashirifar
دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بیولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی خاک، گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه تبریز
author
N
Aliasgharzad
استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
S
Zehtab Salmasi
استاد گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) is one of the medicinal plants, which is used in medical andfood industries. In order to investigate the effect of plant growth promoting microorganisms anddifferent levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and morphological parameters of savory, anexperiment was conducted as factorial randomized complete block design with four replications.The first and second factors were Azospirillum irakense (A) and Pseudomonas putida (P),respectively and the third factor was nitrogen fertilizer as urea with three levels of no nitrogen (N0),half rate (N1: 80 mg kg -1 Soil) and complete rate (N2: 160 mg kg -1 Soil). The results showed that thenumber of branches, root and shoot dry weights were significantly increased using each bacteriumin comparison with control (no inoculation). In Azospirillum (A+) and Pseudomonas (P+)treatments, shoot dry weight was increased by 11 and 8 percent respectively. Also A. irakensecaused a significant increase in plant height. The highest root dry weight and plant height wereachieved in A+P- treatment and the increments were 22 and 44 percentage compared to the control(no inoculation), respectively. Furthermore, A+N2 treatment increased the plant height, number ofbranches and shoot dry weight, and P+N2 treatment enhanced the number of branches and shoot dryweight but these treatments didn’t show significant difference with A+N1 and P+N1, accordingly. Byincreasing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, all morphological traits were significantly increased.However, between the second and third levels of nitrogen intake (N2 and N1) no significantdifferences were observed. Therefore, co-inoculation of this plant with A. irakense and P. putidaand application of N1 level of nitrogen could be efficient in decreasing nitrogenous fertilizerdemand.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
79
91
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4871_739f0ff5d6598d98956365aa148b7043.pdf
The Influence of Free Swelling Index on Improvement of the Soil Moisture
Curve Estimation
S
Javanshir1
دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا- همدان
author
H
Bayat
استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا- همدان
author
text
article
2016
per
Researchers estimate hydraulic properties by indirect methods using various procedures. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the free swelling index as an estimator toimprove the precision of soil moisture curve (SMC) estimation. In this study, 147 soil samples weretaken from West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan, Mazandaran, Hamedan and Kermanshah provinces,and their particle size distribution, bulk density, free swelling index, cation exchange capacity andSMC were determined. Then, the Groenevelt & Grant’s model was fitted to the experimental dataof SMC. Free swelling index and other variables were used as estimators to predict the parametersof Groenevelt & Grant’s model by multiple regression method. All samples were divided intoseveral groups based on textural classes and SMC was estimated for them in four steps. Groupingthe data improved the estimation of SMC. In soil textural groups of the numbers 3 (silty clay loamand clay loam classes), 7 (sandy loam class) and 8 (sand, loamy sand and sandy loam) the IRMSEand AIC values were decreased from 0.07 and 77.85 to 0.06 and 72.28, from 0.05 and 1.63 to 0.04and -61.78 and from 0.06 and 86.11 to 0.05 and 2.97, respectively. Therefore, using the freeswelling index as an estimator, significantly improved the estimates of SMC through the Groeneveltand Grant’s model.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
93
113
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4872_69e73afb7f0a0f3f3e587e0b6c0d0baf.pdf
Determination of Discharge Coefficient in Gabion Weirs at Free and Submerged
Condition
F
Salmasi
دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Abbaspour
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Ahmadi
دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد سازه های آبی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Weirs are hydraulic structures that are built for regulating, controlling and diverting water inthe flow direction. Gabion structures are used extensively in water projects due to the ease ofconstruction, permeability, accessibility and economic efficiency. Porous gabion structures areadaptable to the environment due to their material and performance and also are valuable fromecologic view point. In this study, 8 physical models of gabion weirs and 2 models of solid weirswere built for determining discharge coefficient in gabion rectangular broad crested weirs.Comparisons between gabion weirs with solid weirs were done and they showed that the dischargecoefficient in gabion weirs was greater than that in solid weirs. In addition, the regression relationsbased on the dimensional analysis for the flow through gabion weirs were obtained for both the freeand submerged conditions. Results showed that the discharge coefficient of gabion weirs in freecondition was 16.7 % greater than that of the submerged condition.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
115
127
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4873_58bb584da73ae1e6fc7f9378e1100077.pdf
Derivation of Pedotransfer Functions for Estimating Penetration Resistance,
Aggregate Stability and Parameters of van Genuchten Moisture Curve Model in
Fandoglou Forest Lands of Ardabil
SA
Asghari
دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده فناوری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
author
E
Roozban
دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده فناوری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
author
H
Khodaverdiloo
دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه
author
text
article
2016
per
Direct measurement of soil hydraulic and mechanical properties is time consuming, costly andsometimes unreliable due to soil heterogeneity and experimental errors. On the other hand, theseproperties can be estimated from readily available soil properties using pedotransfer functions(PTFs). This research describes regression based PTFs to predict dependent soil properties includingpenetration resistance (PR), mean weight diameter of aggregates (MWD), some points of soil waterretention curve (SWRC), its slope at the inflection point (Sp), the van Genuchten a and nparameters from independent soil properties including sand, silt, clay, geometric mean (dg) andstandard deviation (δg) of the soil particles diameter, relative bulk (Db-rel) and particle density (Dp),total porosity (n), water repellency (WR), initial water content (Pm), organic carbon (OC) andequivalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Totally, 75 soil samples were taken from Fandoglou forestlands of Ardabil, Iran. Then they were randomly divided in two sets for training (60 data) andtesting (15 data) the derived models. The best PTF for estimating the saturated water content (qs)was obtained with input variables of OC, Db-rel and CaCO3 according to the coefficient of agreement(d), mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE) and bias-variance trade-off (BVTO) statistics.Also, the best PTFs for estimating the PR were obtained with input variables of Pm, Db-rel, dg andCaCO3 and for MWD with input variables of clay to silt ratio, OC and Db-rel. The results showedthat in the studied forest soil, 79 percent of the physical quality index (Sp) variations weredetermined by Db-rel and CaCO3 variables.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
129
148
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4874_73702e21b964b70908bee988c296e374.pdf
The Influence of Bed Slope, Type of suspended particle and Current Advance
Distance on Density and Velocity Profiles of Density Currents
AH
Haghiabi
دانشیار سازه های آبی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان
author
M
Ghomeshi
استاد سازه های آبی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
SM
Kashefipour
استاد سازه های آبی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
H
Goleij
دانشجوی دکتری سازه های آبی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان
author
text
article
2016
per
In an experimental investigation of the density current inflow into reservoir, the influence ofbed slope (0.000 to 0.003), type of suspended particles (salt and two sizes of sediment particles) andadvance distance (at three sations) on density and velocity profiles were investigated. Experimentswere carried out in a tilting flume. Observations and measurements showed that the velocity anddensity profiles nondimensionalized with integral scales, in the same current but at different stationswere the same. Furthermore, there was a fairly good similarity between the velocity profilesmeasured for types of currents flowing on different slopes. The dimensionless density profilesmeasured in different current types were not similar. Turbidity currents with coarse sediment had analmost linear density profile near the bed, whereas the saline density currents showed an almostconstant relative density near the bed.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
149
160
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4886_2af62e5a5e519f6ce631f4cba2a02cad.pdf
Organic Matter Quality and Clay Mineral Type of Soils on a Catena in
Deilaman Region of Guilan Province
P
Alamdari1
استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان
author
P
Mohajeri
دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان
author
A
Golchin
استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان
author
A
Naderi
دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان
author
text
article
2016
per
This research is conducted to evaluate the quality of organic matter and clay type in the soilswhich are located at different positions of the slope of a catena in Deilaman region of Guilanprovince. To do this, the catena was firstly divided into five transverse sections including summit,shoulder, back slope, foot slope and toe slope. Then each section was longitudinally divided intothree parts as three replications and composite soil samples were collected from each sections at thedepths of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60cm and some characteristics of soils and clay minerals of thesamples were determined. Results showed that the maximum organic matter and carbohydratecontents were found in the soils located on the lower positions of the catena (representing foot slopeand toe slope). Carbon-nitrogen ratio decreased by reducing the slope, indicating the more decay oforganic matter in the positions of foot slope and toe slope. Soil microbial respiration amounts alsomore increased with reducing of the slope. Clay mineralogy of soils located on the catena confirmedthe presence of kaolinite, illite, hydroxy interlayer vermiculite and little amounts of chlorite in thesoils. The type of clay minerals was the same but their frequency was varied at the different slopepositions and soil depths. The results of present study revealed that soil properties were affected bytopography in this region.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
161
172
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4887_6d61f33c327247e760685577a77c8980.pdf
Estimation of soil quality indices and its uncertainty using Bootstrap-based
Artificial Neural Networks (BANNs)
M
Sabri
دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Neyishabouri
استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
MA
Ghorbani
دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
F
Shahbazi
دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
K
Valizadeh
استادیار گروه جغرافیای طبیعی،دانشکده جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
In this study the slope of soil water retention curve at its inflection point(Si) as a soil physicalquality index and its correlation with soil convenient properties and with information on vegetationcover from satellite images(SAVI) and digital elevation model (DEM) were studied. For thispurpose, 176 disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from East Azarbaijan and Gilanprovinces. The test sites were chosen as such to provide wide variety in terrain, land usecharacteristics, vegetation, soil types and soil distribution patterns. Particle size distribution, totalporosity, bulk density, organic matter, EC, pH, CCE, mean weight diameter(MWD), geometric meanand standard deviation of particle diameter, water content at -30 kPa, DEM and SAVI were used aspedotransfer function (PTFs) inputs. Since reliable hydrologic prediction is essential for planning,developing and rational management of the soils, therefore, in this study the uncertainty involved inSi prediction using artificial neural network (ANN) models was quantified. The uncertaintyassociated with Si was investigated using the bootstrap based artificial neural networks (BANNs).The performance of PTFs was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) between theobserved and the predicted values and the Morgan-granger-newbold test ( MGN). Althoughvariability exists within bootstrapped replications, improvements were achieved with certain inputcombinations of basic soil properties, topography and vegetation information compared with usingonly the basic soil properties as inputs.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
173
187
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4888_f0c46eb775c254a95506d2403ad22696.pdf
Relationships between LeafWater Potential, Stress-Degree-Day and Available
Water Depletion in Almond Tree under Salinity Stress
A
Onnabi Milan
دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز و عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان آذربایجان شرقی
author
MR
Neyshabouri
استاد گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Mosaddeghi
دانشیار گروه خاکشناسی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان
author
D
Zare Haggi
استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2016
per
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
189
206
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4889_e495f17b2d2423c7d02a78fc334c7617.pdf
Trend Analysis of Precipitation in Northern Half of Iran during the Recent Half
of the Century
F
Ahmadi
-1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
F
Radmanesh2,
استادیار گروه مهندسی منابع آب، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
R
Mirabbasi Najaf Abadi
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد
author
text
article
2016
per
Precipitation is one of the important components of the hydrologic cycle that its amount andintensity change in different space and time scales. The researchers believe that changes inconcentration of greenhouse gases due to consumption of fossil fuels, leads to strong changes insome of the components of the hydrologic cycle such as precipitation in different parts of the world.In this study, trend of precipitations in the northern half of Iran was invistigated in monthly,seasonal and annual time scales using the Mann-Kendall method. The precipitation data of 18selected synoptic stations in the period of 1961-2010 were used for this analysis. The Sen's slopeestimator was used for determining the slope of the precipitation trend line. Results showed that inthe annual time scale, the precipitation at 44% of the stations (8 out of the 18 stations) had asignificant downward trend, six stations had insignificant downward trend and only 4 stations(Babolsar, Qazvin, Sabzevar and Tehran) had insignificant upward trend in precipitation. Amongthe stations, the most strong negetive trend line slope in the case of annual precipitation belonged tothe Gorgan station, which was equal to -4.192 mm/yr. In monthly time scale, the number of monthswith negative trends was 1.3 times greater than that with positive trends. In seasonal time scale,similar to monthly time scale, most of the sites had negative trends. In general, the results indicatedthat the downward trends of precipitation in northwest of Iran were stronger than those in thecentral and eastern parts of the country.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
207
224
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4890_1c0e1bad3570be4d20c14d1bf2baabcb.pdf
Estimating Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient of Pollutants in Open Channel
Flows Using Artificial Neural Networks
E
Izadinia
استادیار گروه مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه شهید اشرفی اصفهانی (ره)
author
A
Saadatpour
دانشجوی دکترای گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
M
Heidarpour
استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان
author
text
article
2016
per
The longitudinal dispersion of pollutants is one of the most effiective phases of the pollutantsdilution process, which having insight about it is of importance. The complexity of measuringlongitudinal dispersion coefficient in rivers increases the necessity of using appropriate methods ofmodeling to predict it. One of the most efficient methods for modeling is the artificial neural networkwhich is one of the artificial intelligence techniques. In this model, without applying the complexnonlinear equations, the dynamics of the system can be extracted and, by this way the output of themodel can be predicted. In this study, the longitudinal dispersion coefficient was predicted byartificial neural network (ANN), using hydraulic and geometric parameters of the streams as inputparameters. Results indicated that the feed forward perceptron network had a suitable precision inestimating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. Sensitivity analysis indicated that in the model, forwhich the ratio of velocity to the shear velocity was considered as an input variable, the determinationcoefficient and error function were equal to 0.84 and 0.87%, respectively. However, in the modelwith an input variable of width to flow depth ratio, the determination coefficient and error functionwere obtained 0.7 and 1.01%, respectively. Therefore, the ratio of the velocity to the shear velocityor roughness coefficient had a greater impact on longitudinal dispersion coefficient, as compared withthe last one. The proposed methodology is an efficient approach to estimate dispersion coefficient instreams and can be implemented into mathematical models of pollutant transfer.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
225
238
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4891_71f52261e4c0ea159c3898da3b696fd2.pdf
Determination of the Best Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)
Model for Estimating Grass Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Coastal
Semi-arid Climate of Hormozgan
M
Nekooamal Kermani
کارشناس ارشد مهندسی آب، مرکز تحقیقات هواشناسی استان هرمزگان، بندرعباس
author
R
Mirabbasi Najafabadi
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه شهرکرد
author
text
article
2016
per
Accurate estimation of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) plays an important role in waterresources management and planning in dry regions. In this study, accuracy and ability of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in estimating ETo was evaluated. Daily meteorological data, including airtemperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, vapor pressure deficit, wind speed and solar radiation ofMinabsynoptic station, Hormozgan province, during 2006 to 2011 were used for modeling. The evapotranspirationvalues estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation (PM) were considered as the reference values forcalibrating ANFIS model. The performance of the developed model with different input combinations wasalso compared with the empirical models, namely, Hargreaves-Samani (HS) and Blaney- Criddle (BC). Theroot mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and the coefficient of determination (R2) wereused for comparing the results of ANFIS, HS and BC methods with reference method (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation). The results showed that the ANFIS was a more appropriate method for estimating the EToinMinab and this model with 6 inputs (with 3 membership functions and Gaussian mixture model) had a betterperformance than the other considered methods with the R2, MAE and RMSE values of 0.99, 0.03 (mm day-1)and 0.04 (mm day-1), respectively. Also, the ANFIS model with 2 inputs (with 3 membership functions andGaussian mixture model) was the best model for the stations which had only the measured temperature data.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
239
258
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4892_0b5cae35078bbe4c1c4aca9902b43d0f.pdf
Effect of Biochar on Lead and Cadmium Uptake from Applied Paper Factory
Sewage Sludge by Sunflower (Heliantus annus L.)
A
Hejazizadeh
دانش آموخته سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب وخاک، دانشگاه زابل
author
A
Gholamalizadeh Ahangar
دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب وخاک، دانشگاه زابل
author
M
Ghorbani
مربی گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده آب وخاک، دانشگاه زابل
author
text
article
2016
per
Application of sewage sludge in agricultural lands as a fertilizer is a suitable selection forsolving management problems of sewage sludge disposal, besides its economic benefits. One of themain limiting factors to use sewage sludge is its high content of heavy metals such as lead andcadmium. Biochar with organic ligands can create complex with heavy metals and makes themimmobile in soil, and reduces their transport to plants. The aim of this study was to investigate theinfluence of the Biochar on lead and cadmium uptake from a Paper Factory sewage sludge by theSunflower (Heliantus annus). For this purpose, a factorial greenhouse experiment as a completerandomized design with three replications was conducted. Four levels of sewage sludge with 0, 15,20 and 25 (g kg-1 of the soil) and four levels of Biochar with 0, 5, 10 and 15 (g kg-1 of the soil) wereused in order to investigate the sewage sludge influence. The results showed that the use of sewagesludge led to a significant increase of the lead and cadmium concentrations in the Sunflower shootsand roots. The results also showed that application of Biochar led to a significant decrease (at 1%probability level) of lead and cadmium concentrations at the shoots and roots of Sunflower.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
259
271
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4893_0e8b2bd63673deae7725047c5c57b8a2.pdf
Modeling the Monthly Inflow to Jamishan Dam Reservoir Using Autoregressive
Integrated Moving Average and Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System
Models
H
Moeeni
دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران -آب دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه
author
H
Bonakdari
استاد گروه عمران دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه
author
ُSE
Fatemi
استادیار گروه منابع آب، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه
author
I
Ebtehaj
دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی عمران-آب و سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه
author
text
article
2016
per
Hydrological time series modeling is one of the most important issues in water resourcemanagement. In this paper monthly inflow to Jamishan dam reservoir in Kermanshah province(west of Iran) is modeled by AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and AdaptiveNeuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) models. These models are based on stochastic andArtificial Intelligence (AI) methods, respectively. For modeling up to five parameters in theARIMA model were used and produced 1296 models which were fitted on the time series. InANFIS model 14 input combinations were defined using the discharges with different lags. Twostates of Grid Partitioning (GP) and Subtractive Clustering (SC) were used in Fuzzy InterfaceSystem (FIS) generation. Also, in training network Back Propagation (BP) and hybrid algorithmswere used. Monthly modeled discharges were compared in the ARIMA and ANFIS models bysome indexes such as Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE) index which was obtained 0.398 and0.8 for each model, respectively. The result showed that the ARIMA model was much moreaccurate than ANFIS model in modeling low discharges and also in short and long times modeling.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
273
285
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4894_b69b9b7e16bb2f3f01ed06ce6234c986.pdf
Evaluation of HYDRUS 2D Software to Estimate StoredWater and Wetting
Pattern of Surface Drip Irrigation
M
Bazaneh
دانشجوی دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه
author
A
Khorsand
دانشجوی دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه
author
K
Zeinalzadeh
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه
author
S
Besharat
استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه
author
text
article
2016
per
Characteristics of a produced soil wetting front by a point source plays considerable role inthe efficiency of drip irrigation. The Shape of wetting pattern depends on various factors such assoil texture and layers, soil structure and emitter discharge. The purposes of this study includeevaluation of wetting front advancement and comparison of HYDRUS 2D model simulations ofsurface drip irrigation with measured data on the field and estimating the depth of stored water insoil layers. In this study, a drip irrigation using T-Tape method was carried out on a sandy-loam soilat four different irrigation times (2, 4, 8 and 24 hour).Volumetric water content of soil samples weremeasured by gravimetric method. Evaluation of the simulated and measured soil water content wasperformed by using adjusted coefficient of correlation (R2), relative error (RE) and normalized rootmean square errors (NRMSE) values. Based on the results, the NRMSE value for water content ofsoil profile with radial distances of zero and 10 (cm) from the dripper location, was calculated in therange of 10 to 15 and 7 to 14 percent, respectively. Also, the RE and average R2 values for the samewater content were calculated in the range of 8 to 16 and 7 to 13 percent and 0.96 and 0.95,respectively. The results indicated that the HYDRUS 2D model could predict the soil water contentwith appropriate precision. Also, three scenarios including 1-double discharge increment (Q2), 2-soil bulk density increment (S1) and 3- soil bulk density reduction (S2), were evaluated forinvestigating the amount of water stored in the soil profile. The results showed that the effect of soilbulk density parameter (S1 and S2) on the amount of stored water depth is greater than the impactof discharge (Q2). So as a reduction of 5% in bulk density, on average, increased the stored waterdepth in the soil profile the rate of 69.85 percent, while this enhancement for the 2-fold increase inthe discharge scenario was 41.91 percent.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
26
v.
شماره1 بخش 2
no.
2016
287
301
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_4895_121d83832e876e217a302a9096d6d556.pdf