Determination of Time Distributed Regression Model for Intense Rainfalls of Tabriz
F
Ahmadzadeh
دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشگاه تبریز
author
Y
Dinpajooh
دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
The design storm is one of the main elements in flood estimation, as the choice of a design storm is an essential step in the many commonly used methods for estimation of design floods. Regarding to the existence of temporal variations in heavy storms, recognition of the storm temporal pattern is an important aspect. Application of storm temporal pattern in watershed hydrological modeling is a great necessity, as the main input, to gain more accurate results. In this research the dimensionless mass curves of intense storms of Tabriz station were extracted for different duration and average dimensionless mass curve were obtained using Pilgrim mean method. The mathematical model of each mass curve a general regression model for the average one as the temporal pattern of Tabriz storms were developed. The comparison of observed storms and those resulted from general regression model (temporal pattern model) indicated the closeness of them which confirmed the model goodness of fit.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
1
11
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1473_fb152b893f05fe8b476221839c09a048.pdf
Effects of Municipal Compost on Germination and Growth of Tomato Seedlings
WR
Asgharipour
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل
author
M
Rafiei
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شیروان
author
text
article
2010
per
Compost has been identified as an alternative chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production. In this study the capacity of the compost produced from urban wastes to enhance seedling emergence grown in potting soil was investigated. Four treatments were compared based on the addition of increasing quantities of compost to soil (1:2.5, 1:5, 1:7.5, 1:10 compost to soil ratio, v/v). Physical and chemical analyses of the different mixtures were made. Plant growth, biomass production, macronutrients, micronutrients, and heavy metal contents of plant and soil were determined. The addition of compost increased pH, electrical conductivity (EC) of substrates, and macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), micronutrients )Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, B) and heavy metal (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co) of plants and substrates. The highest germination, growth rate, shoots and roots dry weights were obtained with the medium prepared by mixing rate of 1:5 compost and soil. The mixture with 1:2.5 rate had the lowest germination and growth of tomato seedling. Both toxic constituents and nutrient imbalances may be responsible for the growth-inhibiting effects of the municipal compost in the treatment. The addition of compost to growth media increased plant nutrient and heavy metal contents of plants. Excess adding of municipal compost to agricultural soil may lead to deleterious effects on crops.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
11
21
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1474_27741a2514e113333af8a2f078ba607e.pdf
Effects of Water Level and Flow Discharge Fluctuations on Suspended Sediment Load Using Artificial Neural Networks (Case study: Ahar Chay River)
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
MA
Ghorbani
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
Evaluation of suspended sediments and parameters affecting them is of great importance in river engineering. In this research the effects of water level and flow discharge fluctuations on suspended sediment load were studied using Artificial neural networks (ANNs). Ahar chay river basin, located in north of Iran, with area totaling about 2400 km2 as a sub-basin of Aras river was chosen. Data from Tazeh-Kand, Orang, Casein, Oshdologh and Bermice (upstream of Sattarkhan dam) stations were employed in ANNs method and the suspended sediment were predicted. The results showed that, suspended load forecasted by water level data had low accuracy than that forecasted by the flow discharge. The maximum and minimum coefficients of correlation for water level data were 0.69 and 0.08 in Orang and Oshdologh stations, respectively. The corresponding values for flow discharge were 0.84 in Oshdologh and 0.7 in Bermice. The main reason for the low coefficient of fittness in some stations probably were due to shortage of data, lack of temporal sequence and inaccuracy of water level fluctuations compared to the flow measurements. It appeared that, in this basin, in moving from high to low land with increasing discharge and sediment rates, the results of ANN became more reliable. Water level fluctuations did not show this trend.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
23
33
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1475_fa4b2eda07e8fecefb1e423ce74de94f.pdf
Effects of Municipal Waste Compost and Vermicompost on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Corn
Sh
Yaghtin
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Moez Ardalan
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Shorafa
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
HA
Alikhani
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2010
per
Vermicompost as soil amendment is known for its large surface area and high nutrients holding capacity. A greenhouse trial was conducted to compare the municipal solid waste vermicompost and compost as potting media for the growth of corns. The mixing proportion of compost and vermicompost with soil were 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% of pot weights. Six corn seeds were planted in each pot and moisture contents of the pots were controlled close to filed capacity (FC). Plants were harvested at 60th day after planting. The results showed that all potted mixtures produced significantly higher biomass than the control (only soil). There was a positive significant relationship between the amount of compost and vermicompost added to the soil and the uptake of nutrients by corn. The optimum mixing proportion for vermicompost was 3% and for compost was 5% of pot weight. The results showed that the adding of 5% compost and 3% vermicompost to the soil, respectively, led to 178.82% and 178.42% increase in shoot dry weight and 49. 54% and 51.63% in root dry weight as compared to the control, respectively.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
35
43
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1476_13ad21920fafa0bb1471755b17617b4c.pdf
Artificial Neural Networks Potential in Multi-Station Modeling of Suspended Load in Comparsion with Sediment Rating Curve Method
MT
Aalami
دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز
author
V
Nourani
دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Nazamara
دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
Sediments transported by river may cause damages to cultivated land and hydraulic structures. Accurate estimation of sediment load for hydraulic structures (e.g. dam) can prevent extra costs. Because of the existence of many rivers, our country, Iran, has high potential for dam construction. On the other hand, flood disaster causes huge damage every year. The main reason for magnifying the effects of this disaster can be related to the reduction of water conveyance capacity of the rivers because of sediment deposition. Therefore, the correct estimation of the transported sediment will be highly important. Prediction of the suspended sediment load can be accomplished by the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). In this study, ANNs are used to estimate suspended sediment load in Akhola station, located on the AjichayRiver in East Azarbaijan, Iran. The available data for this station were daily discharge and sediment load The ANN sensivity for these parameters was examined in the modeling. In order to evaluate the effect of the upstream stations load, the data of Markid and Vanyar stations were also used to train the network, which led to more accurate result. The classic rating curve method was also used to estimate the sediment load at this station. To optimize the coefficients of the rating curve, the genetic algorithm was employed, its result of caerse did not show superiority on the classic optimization method. Regarding these results, multi-station estimation using ANNs has better efficiency.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
45
55
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1477_7b4f69bd26aa9cfdff03ff123b48e815.pdf
Coeficients of Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov and Philip Infiltration Models on the Basis of Soil Bulk Density and Initial Water Content
MR
Neyshabouri
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakhery-Fard
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizade
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
N
Sadeghian
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
J
Kheiry
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
Determining of the coefficients in infiltration models often is accomplished by fitting experimental data (cumulative infiltration and time) to the models; the two important soil parameters, soil bulk density (Db), and Initial water content (W0) are overlooked. In the current study it was aimed to find out to what extent the coefficients in Kostiakov, modified Kostiakov and Philip infiltration models would depond on Db and W0 and by entering those two variables into the models how much the predicting accuracy may be improved. For this purpose soil columns using PVC tubes with 23 cm in diameter and 80 cm length were prepared with four Db ranging from 1.11 to 1.42 gcm-3 and three W0 of 0.106, 0.131 and 0.147 gg-1. Infiltration tests were run with each combination of Db and W0 with two replicates, and the cumulative infiltratoion (I) were recorded at various times (t). Constant presure head of 2.1 cm water was maintained on the soil surfuce during all tests until approaching steady infiltration rate when tests were terminated. At the first step of data analysis, I and tdata were fitted to Kostiakov, modified Kostiakov and Philip models and their coefficients were computed. Then, the coefficients were regressed against Db and W0 and the regression equations were constructed. An the second step by applying those equations, the coefficients in the models were substitueted in terms of Db and W0 and cumulative infiltration, (Ip) were predicted by using three variables of t, Db and W0. Comparing the corresponding set of I and Ip through computing linear correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square deviation (RMSD) was the final step of data analysis. Results indicated that the dependence of the coefficients of these models on Db was quite greater than on W0. Entering Db and W0 into the models inspite of making them relatively complicated, resulted in better prediction of cumulative infiltration at most combinations of Db and W0. In this respect Kostiakov model with Db and W0 entered to it, produced more accurate prediction comparing to Philip and modified Kostiakov models.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
57
69
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1478_cf6b7ad5e252e9f4c8fa10a511d2ad6e.pdf
Analysis of Isochronal Areas Over a Watershed Using Diffusive Wave Model Based on Rainfall Intensity Variation
(Study Area : Kamanaj Olia Watershed-Tabriz)
S
Darbandi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
SAA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadyzadeh
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
The aim of this research is the application of two dimensional Saint-Venant equations for determenation of isochronal areas over the Kamanaj Olia watershed, a sub-watershed of Ajichay, located in East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. For this purpose watershed area was divided into 250×250 meters cells using GIS, then digital elevation model was prepared. Kostiokov infiltration model , as the best fitted model to measured infiltration data was selected for expressing infiltration component in Saint-Venant equations. Saint-Venant equations were solved using explicit method of finite difference numerical technique. Flow trajectory was calculated cell to cell to reach the outlet. Considering the momentary infiltration, the cell to cell flow rate was simulated using diffusive model for the purpose of spatial and temporal analysis.The equilibrium time for each cell was calculated to achieve the drivation isochronal maps for any rainfall event. Based on these maps the relation of concentration time with rainfall intensity as well as that of drainage area with rainfall intensity were developed.The eqiuilibrium time increased as the cell size changed from 250×250 to 300×300 and350×350 meters, because of topographic and hydraulic parameters variation.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
71
84
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1479_9994ff6d68f31adf8439b7b37ad602aa.pdf
Impact of Climate Change Uncertainty on Temperature and Precipitation of Aidoghmoush Basin in 2040-2069 Period
PS
Ashofteh
مهندسین مشاور یکم تهران
author
AR
Massah
پردیس کشاورزی ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2010
per
This research work is aimed to investigate temperature and precipitation changes in Aidoghmoush basin considering uncertainty of AOGCM models that may occur due to climate change in time period 2040-2069 (2050s). At first, monthly temperature and precipitation data of TAR-AOGCM models were provided for baseline period (1971-2000) and future period (2040-2069) under the SRES emission scenario, namely A2. Then, these data were downscaled spatially and temporally to Aidoghmoush basin. Results show temperature increase of 1 to 6˚C in 2050s relative to the baseline period. On the other hand, in 2050s precipitation shows substantial increase in autumn and winter and decrease in other seasons relative to the baseline. Monthly probability distribution function, of temperature and precipitation in the period 2050s were established by weighting method. Results indicated that the HadCM3 model has the most weighing for simulation of temperature and precipitation than the other models.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
85
98
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1480_c9c3dcb0426e6f830bac3209d1e95753.pdf
Kinetics of Zinc Desorption and Relations of Kinetics Parameters with Properties of Some Soils of Iran
N
Broomand
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
Gh
Savaghebi-Firoozabadi
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Farahbakhsh
پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2010
per
The rate of Zn desorption from soil surfaces into soil solution is a dynamic factor that regulates it continuous supply to growing plants. To ascertain the pattern of Zn desorption and the effective soil characteristics, the kinetics of Zn desorption from 20 selected soils of Iran by diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) were investigated. Eight kinetic models were evaluated to describe the rate of desorption of soil Zn by DTPA, which was rapid initially but gradually declined with time. The simple Elovich, the parabolic double diffusion and the two constant rate equations adequately described Zn desorption from soils. Rate constants for the parabolic double diffusion equation (K1 and K2), the two constants (a and ab), and parabolic diffusion (Kd) were closely correlated with soil pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, Olsen-P and DTPA-Mn, which are the soil characteristics that affect solubility, desorption and diffusion of Zn in soils. Rate constant for the simple Elovich equation (βs) was correlated with Olsen-P and rate constant for two-constant equation (b) was correlated with CEC, organic carbon and FC. The ratio of initial Zn desorption (rapid desorption) to total Zn desorption of soils decreased significantly with increase in calcium carbonate equivalent of soils.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
99
112
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1481_08d91f89926db94ddb4b16a3d90ceb28.pdf
Measuring and Modeling Root Water Uptake in Soil
S
Besharat
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
AH
Nazemi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
Water movement through the root zone has attracted an increasing interest during the last few decades. In this research, the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake were studied in the root zone of an apple tree. An important part of the root water uptake model is root length density which was measured by sampling soil cores in the one quarter of the root zone. A 2D model of root water uptake was established, which included root density distribution function, potential transpiration and soil water stress-modified factor. Root water uptake distribution was measured by an array of TDR probes and the model parameters were optimized, by minimizing the residuals between the measured and simulated data. Studies showed that the maximum root water uptake occurred at depth 10-30 cm. The results also showed an excellent agreement between the measured data and the simulated outputs, indicating that the developed root water uptake model was efficient and feasible.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
113
128
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1482_b510a1d63b2ac9963f7159bd29e3fbe7.pdf
Spatial Prediction of Fluoride Concentration Using Artificial Neural Networks and Geostatic Models
A
Asghari Moghaddam
دانشکده علوم طبیعی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Nadiri
، دانشکده علوم طبیعی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
E
Fijani
دانشکده علوم طبیعی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2010
per
In the last decades, researchers had high consideration on the presence of chemical anomalies in water, soil and air which threat human health. Anomalies in fluoride concentration values exceeding standard limit (>1.5 mg/l) in drinking water have high importance, because of direct influence on physiology of human body. Fluoride concentration values of water resources in Bazargan and poldasht plains exceed standard limit (WHO). The aim of this research is spatial prediction of fluoride concentration in these plains. For this purpose Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) model was utilized as a nonlinear model. For spatial prediction of fluoride concentration in the study area, different structures of these models were tested and the best structure (FNN-BFG) was determined. Spatial modeling was carried out by this structure and using fluoride ion concentration, correlated ions values and position of each sample, for which the determination coefficients of training and test steps were equal to 0.9625 and 0.9019 respectively. Then, results of the model were compared to those of the geostatistical methods of kriging and cokriging and the determination coefficients for test steps were 0.7285 and 0.8556, respectively. The best results of the three developed models were related to ANNs models.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
پاییز و زمستان
no.
2010
129
145
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1483_8e2926a675cd9836c93e1459156dbd04.pdf