Comparison of RBF and MLP Neural Networks Performance for Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration
H
Sayyadi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Oladghaffari
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Faalian
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Evapotranspiration is one of the most important components of the hydrologic cycle. This complex phenomenon is related to several climatological factors. Over the last decades, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have shown a good ability for modeling complex and nonlinear systems. In the present research, the ability of Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks in estimation of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) was studied. First, using meteorological dataset of 1951-2004 years for Tabriz Station, the mean values of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration were calculated by Penman-Monteith (PM) method. Then, using these calculated values as target outputs various networks with different structures were defined and trained. Finally, the capabilities of these networks for estimation of evapotranspiration were analyzed using some values of dataset that were not used in the training of neural networks. The obtained results showed that, the value of reference crop evapotranspiration might acutely be estimated (RMSE2>0.976 for validation dataset) when the parameters of average temperature and wind velocity were used as the inputs of model. Also, comparison of these two neural network results specified that MLP neural networks had a relatively more accuracy than RBF neural networks in estimation of ETo, and the only advantage of RBF neural networks was their much less time of training.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
1
12
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1388_09380efee48153db903ae50ed400687e.pdf
Effect of Sinusoidal Corrugated Bed on Hydraulic Jump Characteristics
A
Abbaspour
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
In the present research, the experimental study of the hydraulic jump within a wide scope rather than those of other researchers was implemented on six corrugated beds with different wave steepness. The wave steepness of corrugations and the Froude number were in the range of 0.286 to 0.625 and 3.8 to 8.6, respectively. The effects of wave height and length of corrugations on the basic character of the hydraulic jump such as free surface location, velocity, shear stress distribution and energy dissipation were studied for different Froude numbers. The dimensionless hydraulic parameters were determined as functions of the Froude number. The results showed that the tailwater depth and the length of the jump on corrugated beds were smaller than those of the corresponding jump on a smooth bed. The analysis of velocity profiles at different sections of the jump showed that the velocity profiles were similar and differed from the profile of the simple plane wall jet. The normalized boundary layer thickness, was equal to 0.57 for the jumps on corrugated bed compared to 0.16 for the simple wall jet. The analysis and comparison of the bed shear force and shear stress coefficients showed that the shear stress on the corrugated bed was about 10 times greater than that of the smooth bed. The results of this study are in good agreement with the previous results and showed that the corrugated beds could be used to dissipate efficiently the excessive energy of the hydraulic jump in stilling basins.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
13
26
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1389_b724a0e3beedc46d8d3310cf0e53410a.pdf
Effect of Number of Steps on Energy Dissipation of Stepped Spillways Based on the New Design Approach
F
Salmasi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Stepped spillways are hydraulic structures that, because of their significant capacity in energy dissipation, have been widely used by designers. Flow mechanism over them is complex and many investigations have been performed to study that mechanism. The effect of some parameters such as the number of steps in energy dissipation has not been fully investigated. In this study the latest design criteria have been reviewed and then an algorithm has been developed to design the stepped spillways which is based on the effect of number of steps. Results show that the number of steps affect the energy dissipation. With increasing the number of steps energy dissipation increases and then decreases. Thus for specific discharge and spillway slope, the number of steps can be optimized for maximum energy dissipation. By reducing design discharge the optimum number of steps increases. Research work on this subject can be continued in the future and various aspects of the design parameters may be investigated.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
27
37
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1390_bf8a9bf736837c0cdb14a2846157db0f.pdf
Barb Losses of Four Common Types of On-Line Trickle Irrigation Drippers in Iran
AA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
R
Delirhasannia
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Faalian
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Sayyadi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Computation of hydraulic head variations due to changes in elevation and friction along a lateral is needed for accurate design of drip irrigation. This study was carried out to evaluate trickle irrigation emitter barb losses for different types of on-line trickle irrigation emitters using 16 mm lateral pipes. Four common types of on-line trickle emitters used in Iran with standard discharge rate of 4 l/h were studied under different lateral discharges ranging from 0.8 l/s to 0.19 l/s corresponding to the velocities of 0.6 m/s to 1.5 m/s, respectively. The amounts of head losses along the laterals were measured for 11 different flow velocities in four replications using two digital pressure gauges. The results showed that about 12% to 16% of the head losses in lateral were due to the existing emitter barbs. The well-known Keller graph was also used to estimate the emitter barb losses and the findings were compared to the experimental results. The maximum amounts of mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were equal to 4.768 and 0.4947, respectively, for the emitter No.1, the minimum amounts of these criteria were 0.7237 and 0.0817 for the same order for the emitter No.4. The results indicated that the estimated head losses via Keller graph had not enough accuracy for on-line emitters which are widely used in Iran.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
39
48
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1391_baa1c5b8400307fe1b51f0b97a73d495.pdf
Determination of Rectangular Collar Dimensions for Reducing Scour Around Bridge Pier
H
Arvanaghi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Different methods have been proposed to prevent or reduce scouring around bridge piers. Making use of collars as countermeasures has recently been noticed by researchers. Collar dimensions have great impact on reducing local scour around bridge piers. This study showed that rectangular collars around circular piers reduced both intensity of scouring and depth of scour hole. In this study the effects of collar length in up and down-stream of the pier model and also on its width were investigated. The dimensionless length of rectangular collar in upstream (Lu/D) and downstream (Ld/D) found to be 0.92 and 1.42, respectively, and the width of collar was estimated 3 times greater than the pier diameter. It is noteworthy to mention that with these dimensions scouring process was rarely observed around the pier model after elapsing 62 hours.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
51
64
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1392_67f509d03bc5223b98d199cf708623d8.pdf
Forecasting Annual Streamflow Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model and Fuzzy Regression
L
Parviz
دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Kholghi
دانشگاه تهران
author
A
Fakherifard
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
By Increasing population and the limitation of water resources, forecasting of streamflow using new methods in planning and management of water resources such as reservoirs operation has an outstanding importance. For this aim, over the past years time series models have been considered by hydrologists. The goal of this research was to investigate stochastic model (ARIMA) and fuzzy regression performance for the annual streamflow forecasting. The parameter estimation methods of ARIMA model were conditional and unconditional likelihoods. In fuzzy regression model the symmetric and non-symmetric triangular memberships were used regarding the uncertainties of the real systems. For the comparison of ARIMA and fuzzy regression performance, streamflow data of some tributaries of Urmia lake basin were employed. Results indicated that the unconditional likelihood was the best method among the parameter estimation methods. Comparison between the forecasted and observed streamflow series using the two models revealed that the fuzzy regression had the best fit to the observed streamflow data. The performance of the symmetric triangular membership was better than that of the non- symmetric.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
65
82
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1393_465c92fb8476ae087c6a15b68c83efef.pdf
Determining Erosion Types Contributions to the Sediment Yield Using Sediment Fingerprinting Method (Case study: Margan watershed, Makoo)
Sh
Hakimkhani
دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه
author
H
Ahmadi
دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران
author
J
Ghayoumian
مرکز تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری
author
text
article
2009
per
Because of many problems associated with traditional procedures for identifying sediment sources, fingerprinting techniques, based on physical, chemical and organic properties of sediment and source materials, are increasingly being used as a valuable and effective alternative approach to assembling such information. In this method, a suitable composite (set) of diagnostic properties and a multivariate mixing model are employed to estimate the relative contribution of sediment sources to the sediments transported to basin outlet. In this study, using suitable composites of geochemical elements, radionuclides, organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous, capable of discriminating surface and subsurface erosions of the study basin, and a multivariate mixing model were used to determine contributions of those erosion types to the sediment yield. The suitable composite fingerprints (elements) were obtained using discriminant analysis. The study basin is Margan watershed of Pouldasht, located in Makoo township, West Azarbaijan province. The suitable composite fingerprints having capability to distinguish the above mentioned erosion types include OC, Cr, 137Cs and P. Mean contributions from the two main erosion types, namely surface erosions (sheet and rill erosions) and subsurface erosions (gully, channel and river bank erosions) were estimated as 30.65% and 69.35% respectively. Low mean absolute errors (less than 13%) show high degree of agreement between measured and predicted properties. High model efficiencies (greater than 0.99) confirm the goodness of fit of the mixing models. Also it is argued that fingerprinting estimates for sediment sources are consistent with field observations. Although a number of limitations must be recognized, the fingerprinting approach to source ascription has high efficiency to determine relative importance of sediment sources (surface and subsurface erosions) in the study basin.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
83
96
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1394_b3f15e1fd4f5f89a174aaa739fb7bd6c.pdf
Design of Stable Riprap Downstream of Stilling Basins Using Froud Number
J
Farhodi
دانشگاه تهران
author
SM
Sadast Helbar
دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2009
per
Local Scour downstream of hydraulic structures is one of the most important factors that may either endanger the stability of the structure or decrease its efficiency. Therefore, estimating the geometry of scour hole and its evolution is one of the main questions which engineers are often faced in designing of hydraulic structure. The present paper is aimed to study the design criteria for stable riprap downstream of stilling basins behind the sluice gates. An experimental study was therefore, conducted and the stability of eight different sizes of riprap were studied under varying flow characteristics. The study was based on dimensional analysis whereby some empirical relationships were concluded and recommended as the design criteria for stable riprap downstream of stilling basins behind sluice gates. The experimental results were also assessed using the recommended methods by Peterka (1968), Pilarczyk, K.W, (1990) Scarameia and May (1992) which showed an acceptable agreement with some of these reports. The research was concluded by recommending a simple formula consisting the whole variables affecting the phenomenon of riprap instability.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
97
106
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1395_91aa1d3f777bbfe602ec9b3bca273896.pdf
River Flow Prediction Using Genetic Programming ( Case Study : Lighvan River Watershed )
N
Farboudfam
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد
author
MA
Ghorbani
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
MT
Alami
دانشکده عمران دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
The genetic programming and artificial neural networks as well as time series and (neuron) fuzzy logic, are used in predicting the river flow. In the present study, the genetic programming was applied to predict daily river flow of Ligvan river in Urmia lake watershed for the period of 1997 to 2001 and the memory rule was investigated in decreasing or increasing of forecasting accuracy . In order to model the river flow by genetic programming, the river flow discharge of over 5 days with daily time steps were used. The resulted values of river flow were evaluated by statistical measures, includes root mean square error and correlation coefficient. The results showed the feasibility of employed genetic programming for over 4 days predictions intervals in term of correlation coefficient (0.959) and root mean square error (0.029). Application of artificial neural networks in prediction of river flow had the same trend as for the genetic programming, but with a relatively low accuracy. The best structure of the neural network was three layered network with 4, 6, and 1 neuron in input, hidden and output layers, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.948 and root mean square of 0.215. Therefore, the proposed genetic programming model could be successfully used in modeling the daily river flow.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
107
123
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1419_b10fb83fa737c39f4cb42ef9796c72a0.pdf
Using Statistical Model for Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting Based on Synoptic Patterns of Atmospheric Upper Levels
GA
Fallah Ghalhary
دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
SM
Mousavi Baygi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
M
Habibi Nokhandan
پژوهشکده هواشناسی و سرپرست پژوهشکده اقلیمشناسی
author
text
article
2009
per
Statistical modeling has been used for seasonal rainfall forecasting based on synoptical patterns of the atmospheric upper levels in Khorasan province - northeast of Iran. The data of 37 rainfall stations were obtained from Iranian Meteorological Organization and the first stage was filling the gaps estimating and missing data using statistical methods. At the second stage, the RUN-TEST homogeneity procedure were done to find out if the rainfall data are randomly collected. Mean local time series of rainfall have been calculated by Arc GIS software. In order to forecast the seasonal rainfall in the period of Dec ember to May, the relations between rainfall and atmospheric upper level parameters at the difference time intervals were used as inputs of statistical model. Results show that the statistical modeling can successfully predict amount of the rainfall. Root mean square error obtained by stepwise and backward models were 50.4 and 47.3 millimeter respectively.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
125
144
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1420_189d0f082b578fdef2ebdf75b360be2d.pdf
Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Nutrient Uptake and Onion Yield in a Saline Soil at Field Conditions
AR
Tavasolee
مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان شرقی
author
N
Aliasgharzad
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Mycorrhizal fungi are important symbionts in plants and have key role in nutrients acquisition and enhancing plant tolerance against environmental steresses. This study was conducted to evaluate effect of field inoculation of onion with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield and nutrients uptake in a saline soil during 2004 and 2005 at Khosroshahr Agricultural Research Station. Onion seedlings were inoculated with four speices of Glomus: G. etunicatum, G.versiforme, G.mosseae and G. intraradices in the nursery. Seedlings at about 20 cm height were transplanted into field and cultivated in two groups: 1- without phosphorus and 2- with one half of the recomended phosphorus ( 50 kg P.ha -1 ). At the planting early in spring, soil EC of the experiment site was 7.26 and 5 dS/m in the first and second year; EC of the irrigation water was 5 dS/m. At the end of growth, onion bulb yield and concentrations of N, P, K, Na, Cl, Ma, Zn, Cu in the bulbs were measured. Combined data analysis for two years showed that there is significant difference between the treatment effects on yield and P, Na, Cl, Zn, Cu concentrations and total uptake of N, P, K, Zn and Cu in the bulbs (p<0.01) and total uptake of Na, Cl and Mn (p<0.05). Significantly greater yield of onion bulb was obtained from inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in both years. The highest yield resulted from inoculation with G. etunicatum (32.3 t/h) and G. versiforme (30.76 t/h) with the application of 50 kg P.ha -1. Non-inoculatedtreatment without P-fertilizer produced the lowest yield of 12.6 t/ha. Bulb Na-concentration in G. etunicatum inoculated onion without P-fertilizer reached to the lowest level (0.323 percent in dry matter) and in non-inoculated onion was the greatest (0.476 percent in dry matter). Bulb Cl-concentration in G. mosseae inoculated onion with one half of the recommended phosphorus and G. etunicatum inoculated onion without P-fertilizer reached to the lowest levels (0.778 and 0.791 percent in dry matter, respectively) and in non-inoculated onion was the greatest (1.143 percent in dry matter). Evidently inoculation with mycorrhiza led to greater yield and lower Na and Cl content in the onion bulbs.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
145
158
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1421_b1e3104a34baa5427dbe84cb58217e54.pdf
Evaluation of Geostatisical Methods for Estimating Spatial Distribution of Annual Rainfall Using GIS Media in Hamedan Province, Iran
S
Marofi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
G
Golmohammadi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
H
Zare Abyaneh
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
K
Mohammadi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
text
article
2009
per
Estimation of regional rainfall is one of important problems of water resources studies that can be accomplished by different methods. In this research, based on GIS capability and application of some geostatistical methods such as Kriging (simple, ordinary and universal) and radial basis functions (RBF), thespatial distribution of annual rainfall characteristics of Hamedan province were evaluated. In this regard, the observed data of 11 years in 36 meteorological stations and digital elevation model of the study area were used. To evaluate the methods, the cross validation technique was applied by error estimation. The results show that rainfall of the area varies between 206.7 and 494.8 mm. They also illustrate that the simple Kriging (with exponential model variogram) is the best method for average annual rainfall interpolation based on the mean bios error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error. They were 0.002, 16.53 and 21.04, respectively. Based on the estimated errors, in the case of maximum data, simple Kriging (with circular model) was identified as the reliable estimation method. The ordinary and universal Kriging methods (with Gaussian model) were also recognized as the most precise methods for the minimum rainfall data estimation. These results can be used to local estimation of rainfall characteristics of the region.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
147
164
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1484_2425caf610f59cfbeeaa91ae1e359c86.pdf
Effect of Roughness Shape on the Sequent Depth Ratio of Hydraulic Jump
M
Shafai Bejestan
دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
K
Nici
دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
text
article
2009
per
In this study, the effect of shape of roughness elements on the bed shear stress and sequent depth of hydraulic jump have been investigated. Experiments are conducted in a rectangular flume 0f 7.5 m long and 0.3 m wide in the hydraulic laboratory of ShahidChamranUniversity, Ahwaz, Iran. For the purpose of this study, prismatic roughness elements with different shapes: rectangular, triangular, circular, lozenge and hexangular were tested. The roughened elements are glued on the bed of flume downstream of ogee spillway in such a way that the incoming water jet is just above the element surface. The incoming Froude number was in the range of 4.5 to 12. During each tests the water surface profile, the roller length and the jump length were measured. In few tests the longitudes and vertical flow velocity were measured. The results indicated that the presence of rough elements can reduce the sequent depth ratio. The amount of reduction would depend on the Froude number and the roughness shape. The triangular element can produce lesser sequent depth ratio. Relations have been presented in this study for the sequent depth of hydraulic jump and shear force coefficient of bed as a function of the Froude number for each roughness shape.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
165
176
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1485_cf5ac84ea10263df60de9fde52cb1c46.pdf
Effects of Moisture Content and Voltage Gradient on the Removal of Cd, Pb and Zn From a Calcareous Contaminated Soil
H
Beyrami
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Neyshabouri
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
Sh
Oustan
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2009
per
Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soils seems an innovative approach for their remediation. This technique may require much less time for the removal particularly in the soil with lower permeability comparing to the conventional leaching methods. In the current study electrokinetic remediation of a calcareous soil contaminated by three heavy metals (Zn=1400 mg kg-1, Cd=15 mg kg-1 and Pb=250 mg kg-1) due to the release of sludge's from mining industry around Zanjan city north west of Iran, was investigated in disturbed soil columns. Treatments imposed during the experiment were three moisture contents (saturated, FC and 0.7 FC), and two voltage gradients (1.3 and 2.66 volts per cm of the column length). Effects of three electrolytes (distilled water, Acetic acid, EDTA), electrolyte circulation and anodes displacement on the removal efficiency were also studied. Experimental data showed that raising voltage gradient and water content both enhanced ion migration through the column and thus led to considerably grater removal. After 10 days imposing the above voltage gradient under saturation condition, the removal of Cd, Zn and Pb achieved to 32.6%, 31.3% and 18.9%, respectively. Reducing water content to 0.7 FC reduced the removal percents to 21%, 18.4% and 12.3%, respectively. The largest removal belonged to Cd; with Zn and Pb being the second and third in this respect.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
177
199
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1486_b0cccf97341cf45527178996684939ff.pdf
Evaluation of Two Artificial Neural Network Software in Predict of Crop Reference Evapotranspiration
H
Zare Abyaneh
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
A
Gasemi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
M
Bayat Varkeshi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
K
Mohammadi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
AA
Sabziparvar
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
text
article
2009
per
In this study, the performance of two different artificial neural network software's named neuro solution (NS) and neural works professional II (NW) in estimation of crop reference evapotranspiration (ET0) were evaluated. For models evaluation, some statistical parameters such as root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were calculated for different arrays, learning rules and transfer functions. For the NS software the best fitted array characterizing with lowest values of RMSE, MAE and highest R2 were found to be 0.08, 0.07 (mm day-1) and 0.87, respectively. Results showed that the NS software with the best fitted network array of: learning rule of conjugate gradient and transfer function of sigmoid type, which required shorter computational time and less iteration loops, can perform better prediction. The results indicated that using two hidden layers did not improve the accuracy of ET0 predictions, in comparison with the results obtained by one hidden layer layout. The sensitivity analysis of neural network model revealed that ET0 is very sensitive to maximum air temperature (Tmax). In contrast, the estimated daily ET0 showed the lowest sensitivity to minimum relative humidity (RHmin).
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
201
212
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1487_5c62a6870af818d7403d62f08860de17.pdf
Effect of Organic, Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Chickpea Grain Yield and Quality
A
Ghalavand
دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
Kh
Mohammadi
دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
M
Agha Alikhani
دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
Y
Sohrabi
دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان
author
text
article
2009
per
In order to introduce a sustainable soil fertility system in Kurdistan province (Sanandaj), a field experiment was carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing season. In this research effect of different fertilizers including farm yard manure, compost, biofertilizers, chemical phosphorus and green manure was investigated on grain yield and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum, Pirouz cultivar). Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of Vicia panunica and Hordeum vulgare and (G2): control, as green manure levels. Also, five methods for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): 20 t.ha-1 farm yard manure; (N2): 10 t.ha-1 compost; (N3): 75 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate; (N4): 10 t.ha-1 farm yard manure & 5 t.ha-1 compost and (N5): 10 t.ha-1 farm yard manure & 5 t.ha-1 compost & 50 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate were considered in split plots. Four levels of biofertilizers were (B1): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida & Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control, (without biofertilizers). Results showed that green manure increased pod number/plant and number of fertile pods per area. Integrating biofertilizers (B3) and green manure (G1) produced the highest rate of pod number per plant. G1×N5 interaction obtained the highest amount of yield component (p≤0.01). However sole application of chemical phosphorus and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) has not significant effect on 100 grain weight. Regarding to significant differences between experimental treatments in all two and three way interactions G1N5B3 was determined as the superior treatment. Significant increasing of N, P, K, Fe and Mg in chickpea leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment. Highest amount of protein and starch were obtained under (N5) treatment. Also, this treatment having low crude fiber, high total sugar content and reduced cooking time, increased the quality of chickpea grains.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
19
v.
بهار و تابستان
no.
2009
213
234
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1488_b200283ad3ccee3a1ce29d5451411939.pdf