Optimum Exploitation of Multi- purpose Alavian Dam Reservoir Using Ant Colony Algorithm
M
Banibashar
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد
author
MT
Alami
دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Abbasi
دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران
author
text
article
2011
per
One of the most important problems in water resources management is the optimum exploitation of dams reservoirs. This task has been accomplished by various ways. Application of the heuristic algorithms has been noticed because of the old methods are difficult and expensive. One of the most important algorithm is the ant colony algorithm. In this study to resolve the problem of optimum exploitation of reservoir system of the Alavian dam, located in the Soofi Chay basin in Maragheh, acquired data of 21 years were used. The current study shows that the spillway out flow occurs when the reservoir in flow is more and the irrigation demand has been supplied. Noting that the reservoir inputs were discrete the model was forced to select the discontinuous data leading to optimum values being different from the irrigation demand and spill or storage of water in the reservoir occurred. The rate of this situation is reduceable by decreasing the discretization intervals.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
1
13
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1368_b6cb28ad1a11a5d56d1c1fc1d78bc267.pdf
Stage -Discharge Relationship Modeling in Rivers Using Intelligent Systems
A
Soltani
دانشگاه تبریز
author
E
Olyaie
دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
author
MA
Ghorbani
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2011
per
Since continual measurement of rivers discharge, specialy at flooding time is expensive and difficult task, modeling of stage-discharge relationship using mathematical and intelligent models have been developed and used. In this research artificial neural networks, inference neuro-fuzzy and genetic programming were used for modeling daily stage- discharge relationship at the two stations, Yamula and Sogutluhan on the Kizilirmak river in Turkey. Modeling were accomplished by the above three methods with various combination of inputs including the previous stage-discharge data. According to the results obtained, neuro-fuzzy showed greater accuracy. Due to ability of genetic programming for evolving mathematical relationship and selecting significant variables, this method was selected as the best for stage-discharge relationship modeling using four main operators including {+,-,*,/} with R2,RMSE and MAE for Yamula station are 1.000, 0.974 and 0.552 and for Sogutluhan station, 0.999, 1.095 and 0.630 respectively.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
15
31
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1369_02c50e74f1d92e43609f6fe559b2a804.pdf
Estimating Saturated and Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivities of Sloping Lands under Steady and Transient States
M
Raoof
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
AH
Nazemi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
SAA
Sadraddini
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
S
Maroofi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
author
text
article
2011
per
Double ring and tension infiltrometer are simple, fast and suitable instruments for determining soil hydraulic conductivity. The effect of land slope on soil properties such as saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities has been reported by various researchers. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare soil hydraulic conductivities at different slope gradients under steady state and transient flow regiones. Field experiments were conducted in a loamy soil with different slope gradients in Gonbad research station, Hamadan, Iran. Soil surface slope gradients, of 0 (level), 10, 20, 30 and 40 degree were selected in this station. For each slope gradient, water infiltration experiments were carried out using a double ring and a tension infiltrometer at tensions of 0, 6, 9 and 15 cm in three replications. Totally 60 infiltration experiments were carried out. In steady state, values of saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities were estimated using Reynolds et al. and Ankeny et al. procedures, respectively. In transient statevalues of the hydraulic conductivity, for different land slopes and water pressure heads, were calculated from the parameter of the second term of Philip’s two-term equation, Results indicated that the hydraulic conductivity values for both steady state and transient flow regines were decreased with increasing in tension and slope gradient values. The higher rate of hydraulic conductivity decreases was obtained for lower tensions. In steady and transient state, by increasing in slope gradient from 0 to 40 degrees, decreasing of hydraulic conductivity in 0 tension was 4.1 and 3.7 times more than these in 15 cm tension, respectively. The fitness between the Gardner exponential model and steady state flow procedure was higher than that of transient flow procedure. In all experiments, values of relative difference of hydraulic conductivities were less than 7% that indicated good fitness between the steady state and transient flow procedures.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
33
46
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1370_41a1f3dcd1ebee6cbd8e3113ef598332.pdf
The Effect of Entrance Resistance on the Hydraulic Characteristics of Flow in Subsurface Drainage
J
Shiri
دانشگاه تبریز
author
AH
Nazemi
دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2011
per
In order to determine and analyze the head losses caused by the combined effect of entrance resistance and approach flow convergence to drains, some known models were studied. The field data of an existing sub-surface drainage system were applied for evaluating the models and selecting the best one. The hodograph solution was employed to compute the water head, directly above the drain, while the Oosterbaan model was used to validate the hodograph results. Total head loss between two drains, was determined using Ernst equation. The results showed that increasing total head loss caused reduction of hydraulic head in approach flow region in a non-linear manner. Application of Youngs and Hoffman equations as well as EnDrain program based on energy and Darcy equations could simulate drain discharge to some extent. Hoffman equation gave some promising results among the others in term of R (0.928), RMSE (0.0007) and SI (1.09).
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
47
60
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1371_ce2110347b58a4521df1c384d272e13e.pdf
Genetic Programming and Its Application in Rainfall-Runoff Modeling
A
Soltani
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
MA
Gorbani
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Fakheri Fard
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
S
Darbandi
دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2011
per
The role and importance of rainfall-runoff process in water resources studies has led this process to be considered by many researchers. Different methods such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, neurofuzzy, wavelet analysis, genetic algorithm, genetic programming and stochastic differential equations have been developed for rainfall-runoff modeling. Furthermore, genetic programming which involves a mathematical model relating output and input variables, is able to select input variables that effectively contribute to the model. In this research, genetic programming (GP) was applied to modeling of daily basis rainfall-runoff process in Lighvan watershed with area of 76.19 km2. According to the ability of GP in selecting the best variables, the significant variables were selected after 10 times running of GP. Modeling process was carried out using selected variables as well as two sets of mathematical operators. Comparing the results obtained for both models indicated that correlation coefficients and mean square errors using training data set were equal for both of them i.e. 0.85 and 0.06, respectively. For the test data the coefficients became 0.93, 0.2 for set (1) and 0.97 and 0.08 for set (2), respectively. The model obtained from set (2) of the mathematical operators, was selected as the desirable one for the rainfall-runoff analysis in the watershed.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
62
71
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1372_b96cca6f32f45539678b606d5797b8bd.pdf
Relationship Between Fractal Dimension of Particle Size Distribution and Some Physical Properties of Soils
A
Ahmadi
دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Neyshabouri
دانشگاه رشت
author
H
Asadi
دانشگاه رشت
author
text
article
2011
per
Fractal dimension (Dm) of particle size distribution (PSD) has been introduced as a predictor of soil texture-related properties. This study investigates relationships between Dm and some of the physical properties of soils. Samples from 36 soil series with varying properties were collected from northwest of Iran. Sand fraction was determined by sieving, and silt and clay fractions by the hydrometer methods. Fractal dimension of PSD was computed by Bird et al. model. Organic matter content and total porosity of the samples were measured by wet oxidation and gravimetric methods, respectively. A rainfall simulator with drainable tilting flume (1×0.5 m) at 9% slope was employed and the effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) was calculated at 20, 37, and 47 mm h-1 rainfall intensities. Statistical analysis showed that in contrast to significant and positive correlations occurred between Dm and each of clay (0.963**), silt (0.371**) and total porosity (0.642**), the correlations between Dm and either of sand (0.748**) or geometric mean diameter of particles (dg) were negative (0.748**). Therefore, Dm had significant relations with soil textural fractions and textural classes, and might be used as an integrating index in modeling studies. Results also showed that greater Dm was associated with greater self-similarity in pore size distribution.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
73
81
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1373_78bc798e3c68d5ee7e5911a1c3271d26.pdf
Effects of Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid at Different Phenological Stages on Yield and Growth Characteristics of Two
M
Khiavi
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه
author
MB
Khorshidi
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه
author
M
Ismaeili
مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان
author
S
Azarabadi
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه
author
A
Faramarzi
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد میانه
author
N
Najafi
دانشگاه تبریز
author
J
Emaratpardaz
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2011
per
This experiment was carried out as a factorial design based on RCBD with 18 treatments and three replicates during crop year 2005-2006 at Zanjan agricultural research center, in order to investigate effects of boron and zinc foliar application on yield of two rapeseed cultivars. Factors in the experiment were: spraying Zn sulphate at three levels including Zn0 (no spraying), Zn1 (spraying with concentration of 0.003m/v), Zn2 (spraying with concentration of 0.006 m/v) and spraying boric acid including B0 (no spraying), B1 (spraying with concentration of 0.002 m/v), B3 (spraying with concentration of 0.004 m/v) and the two cultivars were V1 (SLM046) and V2 (Talayeh). Sprayings were accomplished at two growth stages (early stemming and flowering). During the growth period, conventional cares were done and the required information including plant height, number of fertile and infertile capsules were recorded. At harvesting, TKW (thousand kernel weight) was determined in addition to grain yield. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between the treatments, Maximum grain yield of rapeseed (4180 kg/ha) was obtained from Zn0B1 treatment in SLM046 cultivar. Therefore, regarding to positive effects of B on grain yield and joint application of B and Zn on the number of fertile and infertile capsules and TKW and also high yield, it is recommended to use cultivar SLM046 and joint spraying of boric acid and Zn sulphate with the concentration of 0.002 and 0.003(m/v), respectively, at early stemming and flowering stages in the regions of similar climate.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
83
96
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1374_e46c0ede4a856c58a9393b2907326af9.pdf
Patterning Different Crops Yield with Saline Water Irrigation Condition Using SWAP Model
VR
Verdinejad
دانشگاه ارومیه
author
T
Sohrabi
دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Feizi
مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان
author
N
Heydari
مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی کرج
author
SH
Araghinejad
دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2011
per
In this study, the effects of different quality and quantity levels of irrigation water on crop yield, soil water and solute transport were simulated using SWAP model. Field experiments were conducted for the six main crops of the region such as wheat, barley, onion, sunflower and sugar beet at Rudasht drainage and soil reclamation research station. The effects of water salinity under different irrigation managements on crop yield, crop yield components and soil salinity were investigated. The SWAP model was calibrated by inverse modeling and was linked with the PEST model. The model calibration consisted of hydraulic parameters of soil layers as well as solute transport and crop parameters. In order to evaluate modeling validity, statistical indices such as coefficient of determination, root mean square error, modeling efficiency and coefficient of residual mass were calculated. Result of the model analysis showed that with precise calibration, SWAP model is able to predict soil water and solute transport and crop yield with high degree of accuracy. To determine crop-water-salinity production functions, SWAP model was linked to the SENSAN model, then by changing irrigation water depth and salinity values, the model was executed. In order to determine optimal production function for each crop, six functions including linear, cobb douglas, transcendental, translog, quadratic and the Leontief were examined and the pertinent parameters were determined with ordinary least square method using SHAZAM model. Based on statistical indices the optimal production function for wheat, barely, sugar beet, onion and cotton were adjusted Leontief and for sunflower was quadratic.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
97
111
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1375_fa0d913981543e619694325425a34cb0.pdf
Spatial Variability of Pan Evaporation in Iran and its Estimation Using Several Empirical Models
H
Zare Abyaneh
دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
AR
Moghaddamnia
دانشگاه زابل
author
M
Bayat Varkeshi
دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
A
Gasemi
دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
M
Shadmani
دانشگاه بوعلیسینا
author
text
article
2011
per
Evaporation as a basic data has a special importance in agricultural, hydrological, meteorological and water and soil conservation researches. In this study, annual evaporation was estimated by means of 61 meteorological station information with 9 empirical and theoretical methods. Results were compared with class-A pan data. The results showed that among the tested methods, Ivanov method had the best consistency with class-A pan evaporation data. The highest relative frequency was in Ivanov method with covering about 56% of all stations and the least covering in Marciano method with 1.6 % converage.. Therefore, Ivanov method showed the needed accuracy for the predicting of evaporation at the different parts of Iran. For estimation of the evaporation at the locations without measured data, evaporation zoning as an important principle at large scheduling were considered. For zoning two methods of simple and ordinary kriging with circular, spherical, exponential and Gousian models were used. Statistical criteria as MAE and MBE showed that circular model in ordinary kriging method is better. The values of statistical criteria were 1.54 and 0.01 mmday-1, respectively. Evaporation zoning in Arcview software, based on the actual value of evaporation and value of Ivanov method at four groups of evaporation were considered that they had good overlapping. Results of evaporation zoning showed that value of evaporation in 99.33% of Iran is higher than 4.04 mmday-1 and same evaporation at 96.43% based on Ivanov method was obtained. Results showed that evaporation in local variation (Ivanov) in ordinary kriging for large area and use of large number of stations is reliable. Finally, the spatial variation of evaporation is estimation by Ivanov method with zoning to ordinary kriging method is recommended for the Iran.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
113
129
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1382_25397b23928899930e26556c5aae8cc1.pdf
Simulating of Phytoremediation Time of Cadmium and Copper Spiked Soils by Salvia sclarea
MA
Dalalian
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات
author
M
Homaee
دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
text
article
2011
per
Phytoremediation is one of the environmental friendly technology that uses plants to clean up soil from heavy metals contamination. The prerequisite for successful phytoremediation is the existence of hyperaccumulator plants. The objective of this study was simulation phytoremediation time of Cd and Cu-spiked soils by Salvia sclarea. A mathematical model was used based on soil and plant responses to Cd and Cu pollutants. To verify the model, an extensive experimental set up was established to obtain the needed data. Large quantity of a sandy loam soil was thoroughly mixed with Cd and Cu to obtain homogeneous concentration of these pollutants within the soil matrix. The Cd and Cu spiked soils were packed into the designated pots. Salvia sclarea seeds were germinated in the containing 7.5 Kg of Cd and Cu spiked soils. The proposed models then were calibrated using the collected data and validated quantitatively. The results indicated that phytoremediation rate of Cd and Cu by Salvia s. is zero-order function for Cd and Cu concentration in soil. The results also indicated that the proposed model with linear adsorption isotherm can reasonably predict the time needed for the remediation of soil Cd and Cu.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
129
141
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1383_ee86dae11162ee2266c6ba717e4cfc38.pdf
Climate Change Trends During Two Periods in Hamedan and Tabriz
M
Karimi Kakhki
دانشگاه بوعلی سینا
author
A
Sepehri
دانشگاه بوعلی سینا
author
text
article
2011
per
This study was carried out to investigate climate change at Hamedan-nozheh and Tabriz meteorological stations during two periods of 55 and 41 years ending to 2005, using nonparametric Mann-Kendall and parametric linear regression tests. Results indicated the upward trend of maximum temperature in Hamedan at annual scale and at late winter to early autumn in 55 years period. Increasing wind speed at annual scale, spring and summer and decreasing of the spring precipitation were occurred in this period. The minimum temperature had synchronous downward trend. In 41 years period, the maximum temperature was stable and decreasing minimum temperature trend was changed to upward trend. Also, the mean temperature at annual scale and summer and the sunshine hours at annual, winter, late summer and early autumn were increased. Noticeable changes in Tabriz climate were decreasing of precipitation at annual scale and winter, decreasing of the relative humidity throughout the year, decreasing of the wind speed at summer and increasing of the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures at annual scale and summer in 55 years period. In 41 years period, reference evapotranspiration had upward trend at winter, early spring and early autumn. The relative humidity and sunshine hours had synchronous downward and upward trends, respectively. Also, the minimum, maximum and mean temperatures had upward trends in some cases. Altogether, aridity index had downward trend in consequence of precipitation decrease and reference evapotranspiration increase in Tabriz that led to rise of climate aridity.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
143
155
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1384_b36c2f927585b63b3789339bcd3e5510.pdf
Montly Prediction of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Fars Province
HR
Fooladmand
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مرودشت
author
text
article
2011
per
Estimation of reference crop potential evapotranspiration (ETo) is essential in many irrigation projects. Also, concerning the deficit of water reresources in Iran, ETo prediction through using time series has paramount role in future programming. Based on this, monthly ETo values were calculated using monthly weather data up to year 1388 of synoptic stations in Fars province containing Abadeh, Eghlid, Darab, Zarghan, Dorodzan Dam, Shiraz, Fasa and Lar. Then, in each station it was assumed that about 20 percent of last ETo values were not available, and consequently these values were predicted using time series model of SARIMA, and then the predicted and calculated values of ETo in each station were compared with line one:one, separately. The results showed that the same time series model were not appropriate for all stations. Moreover, the results indicated that there were not significant diferences between the predicted and calculated values of ETo in each stations. Therefore, ETo values were predicted up to year 1403 for each station, separately. The results generally indicated an increasing trend in ETo prediction in Fars province.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
157
169
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1385_575756bcb93cc522c47a8a3d35c27334.pdf
Estimation of Reference Evapotranspiration with Various Occurrence Probability Levels (Case Study: Urmia)
S
Mehdizadeh
دانشگاه ارومیه
author
J
Behmanesh
دانشگاه ارومیه
author
J
Nikbakht
دانشگاه زنجان
author
text
article
2011
per
Accurate estimation of crop water requirement is the basic step for designing and scheduling of irrigation and drainage projects. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a stochastic variable, therefore to reduce the risk level, it is needed to select and use proper evapotranspiration probability levels. In this research, 24 years meteorology data of Orumieh synoptic station have been used to estimate ET0. Also for investigation the effect of ET0 calculation methods on its value, FAO Penman-Monteith (FP-M) and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) models were selected. Daily ET0 distribution curves with different probability levels for each method were extracted. Differences between maximum daily ET0 values (calculated by FP-M method) with 75% and 50% probability level was 1.0 mm/day (equivalent to 13%) and between 90% and 50% was 1.9 mm/day (24%). Similarly for H-S method the difference was 0.5 and 0.9 mm/day (8% and 15%), respectively. Also at a particular probability level, there was noticeable difference between values of FP-M and H-S methods. In order to understand the impacts of calculation period length on mean daily ET0 value, daily ET0 with 99% probability, and moving average of daily ET0 were calculated for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 day perrids. After determination of occurrence date of average maximum daily ET0 for the above periods, average of maximum daily ET0 with different probability levels for the periods of 1 to 30 days were determined. The occurrence of peak dates within 1 to 20 day periods, for FP-M method was 2 weeks after H-S method but for 25 and 30 day periods the dates were the same. The results showed that the peak mean daily ET0 of FP-M method for 5 day periods at 50% and 75% probability levels were 7.8 and 8.7 mm/day (12% difference) and for H-S method they were 6.1 and 6.6 mm/day (8% difference).
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
171
183
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1386_250b34680329daf16d806b29a4ab2663.pdf
Ion Exchange Efficiency of Nitrate Removal from Water 1- Equilibrium Sorption Isotherms for Nitrate on Resin Purolite A-400
A
Moussavi
دانشگاه گیلان
author
H
Asadi
دانشگاه گیلان
author
M
Esfandbod
دانشگاه گیلان
author
text
article
2011
per
In the current study, an anion exchange resin, Purolite A 400, was employed to investigate nitrate removal from aqueous solutions. For the adsorption isotherm study, 0.15 g of resin was contacted with 50 mL of NaNO3 solution at the concentrations of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, and 200 mg-NO3 L-1 with two pHs of 6.5 and 7.5 at two equilibrium temperatures of 20 and 25 oC for 24 h with continuous shaking. Aadsorption characteristics of the resin for nitrate were evaluated by modeling of adsorption isotherms using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich - Peterson and Sips models. Based on the statistics of Chi-square test and correlation coefficient, Langmuir equation showed the best fit to the data. Sips and Redlich–Peterson equations followed Langmuir model, respectively. Freundlich equation fitted poorly to the date, though its correlation coefficient was significant. Comparison and relations among the calibrated parameters of the models showed that Sips and Redlich–Peterson equations were similar to Langmuir equation. Based on the latter equation, Purolite A-400 revealed higher (average 30 percent) bonding energy at 25 oC than 20 oC. Adsorption capacity of the resin also was 25 percent higher at pH 6.5 than pH 7.5.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
4
no.
2011
185
200
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1387_71e6d64f0db661c096f70f1d935a6570.pdf