Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Snow Water Equivalent in the Upstream of Karoon River Using GIS
S
Marofi
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
author
H
Tabari
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
author
H
Zare Abyaneh
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان
author
MR
Sharifi
گروه مهندسی عمران دانشگاه جندیشاپور
author
text
article
2014
per
In mountainous basins, snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation is an important step of waterresources management. The main purpose of this research was the investigation of the weightingmethod efficiency using GIS in estimating spatial distribution of SWE. To this regard, using theobserved snow depth and density, the SWE was initially calculated. Then, the weighting methodwas used to estimate spatial distribution of SWE. The results of the weighting method wereevaluated by the interpolation technique map. Weighted SWE map indicated that very high andhigh SWE zones were dominant in areas with high elevations, moderate slope and high upwindslopes. In general, the results showed that weighting method is enable to estimate spatialdistribution of SWE satisfactorily.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
1
16
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1300_836cb063d18e6a396cc8c876f6067e82.pdf
Effect of Ion Adsorption on Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media
Sh
Shahmohammadi Kalalagh
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران
author
AH
Nazemi
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
Use of mathematical models as efficient tools in solute transport studies and management in porousmedia is usual. The present model by making use of the governing equation for two - dimensionalsolute transport in a porous medium expresses the ion adsorption effect on solute transport in asaturated semi infinite porous medium.This model has been solved analyticaly under the first type(Dirichlet condition) and the third type (Cauchy condition) boundary conditions. In solute transportby diffusion, the third type boundary condition shows the solute concentration at the boundary or onthe soil surface more than that of the first boundary condition. In advection – dispersion solutetransport, the solute concentration distribution curves resulting from the first and third boundaryconditions because of advection predomination are approximately identical. The effect of ionadsorption on the medium,s solid matrix is evaluated by retardation factor in the model. Theretardation factor greater than one causes retardation in solute transport, distribution and dispersionin the medium. The effect of ion adsorption on solute concentration distribution is independent ofthe selected boundary condition and depends on the modes of solute transport and dispersion in themedium, so as the rate of this effect in advection – dispersion solute transport is more than indiffusion transport.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
17
27
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1301_11e296b7384f8dbb83c4179ae8982da6.pdf
Effect of Water Deficit Stress and Nitrogen on Yield and Compatibility Metabolites of Two Medium Maturity Corn Cultivars
S
Mansouri-Far
گروه زراعت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
SAM
Modares Sanavy
گروه زراعت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
Kh
Mohammadi
گروه زراعت دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
author
text
article
2014
per
In order to study the effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen on yield and compatibilitymetabolites in two hybrid corn cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the experimental farms ofTarbiat Modarres and Kermanshah Razi Universities. The experimental design was randomizedcomplete block with treatments organized following a split-factorial with three replications.Drought stress at three growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and both vegetative andreproductive) and without water deficit or control were randomized to the main plot units.Combination of two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (100 and 200 kg/ha) and two maize varieties (S.C.647 and T.C. 647) were appled to the subplot units. The results showed that water deficit stress,nitrogen and cultivar had significant effects on grain yield. Water deficit stress at vegetative phasehad significant effect on leaf soluble proteins and was reduced in stress treatments as comparedwith the control. Soluble protein in the treatments with full fertilizer was more than nitrogen deficittreatments. At the end of each phase of stress (growth stage) water deficit induced a significantincrease of proline in leaves. Nitrogen levels showed positive correlation with the loaf prolineContent. Water deficit stress led to a significant decrease of chlorophyll content in examinedcultivars. Water deficit had a significant effect on free amino acid content of leaf at the end ofreproductive stage.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
29
45
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1302_1467e8100610148d0178df89b17f1006.pdf
Improvement of the Volume Balance Model by Adjusting Water Surface Storage Term in Furrow Irrigation System
S
Golestani-Kermani
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه شهرکرد
author
SH
Tabatabaei
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه شهرکرد
author
M
Shayannejad
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه شهرکرد
author
text
article
2014
per
Generally irrigation efficiency is reported too low in most fields of Iran. It can be increased whenthe design input parameters such as infiltration opportunity and advance time are estimatedaccurately. Volume balance model (VBM) is introduced as an appropriate model for evaluation ofthe surface irrigation system and its application in designing the irrigation system. However, thepredicted values from this model are not strongly correlated to the hydraulic model due to themodel assumptions. The purpose of this research was to develop an improved volume balancemodel (IVBM) for furrow irrigation system. The IVBM is based on a combination of the VBM andthe Zero-Inertia model (ZIM) that was used to desing border irrigation system. For evaluation of themodel, it used five series of field data with a differente range of soil texture and the field properties.The data included geometric/hydraulics coefficients, advance time, inflow/outflow discharges,Manning’s coefficient, bed slope and Kostiakov infiltration coefficient. The comparison of themodels (VBM and IVBM) has been done with root mean squared error (RMSE) with the observeddata. The result shows an increasing of 15-40% accuracy for advance distance estimation of IVBMin comparison with the VBM.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
47
61
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1303_d717731c678586abddc0cba21ed371f5.pdf
Simulation of Flow Over CylindricalWeirs Using Fluent Model and Comparison with Experimental Data
P
Varjavand
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
P
Khosravinia
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
Z
Rafieey
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه مازندران
author
text
article
2014
per
Cylindrical weir is one of the broad-crested weirs used extensively due to steady state flow patternand free passing of suspended materials over it. In this study, flow conditions over five physicalmodels of cylindrical weir were tested and the effects of parameters such as weir diameter,hydraulic head at the upstream side and negative pressure on the weir were investigated. The flowwas also simulated using k -e turbulence model by Fluent software and the results were comparedwith those from the physical model. There was a rise in coefficient of discharge when the total headof flow and negative pressure over the weir were increased. The average relative errors of Fluentsoftware in simulation of upstream flow depth, depth of flow over the weir and coefficient ofdischarge were 0.914%, 1.39% and 4.172%, respectively. By considering the hydraulic propertiesof flow over the cylindrical weir, a good agreement between the results of Fluent software andphysical model was confirmed.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
59
69
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1304_71c71515241508801ea67b202513ef24.pdf
Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy and Sediment Rating Curve Models for Estimating Suspended Sediment Load of Ajichay River
MM
Moayeri
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
MR
Nikpoor
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hoseinzadeh Dalir
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
In water construction projects, river engineering, and irrigation and drainage engineering, it is vitalto estimate the accurate volume of the sediment transported by rivers. As the sediment transportphenomenon is an immensely complex problem, therefore presenting an appropriate solution forprecise evaluation of the suspended load in rivers is tedious and the mathematical models are notalso accurate enough to be applied. Nowadays application of artificial intelligence systems has beendeveloped as a novel solution in analysis of water resources problems. In this research, the AdaptiveNeuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) models wereutilized to determine suspended sediment rate of Ajichay River. Discharge, sediment load and waterlevel data were used to prepare the models and obtain sediment rating curves. The statistical periodis also divided into three seasons, namely dry, wet and snow melting. The accuracy of the modelsfor these periods has been tested. The results showed that ANFIS neuro-fuzzy had better accuracyfor determination of suspend sediment loads in comparison with both the ANNS and the ratingcurve.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
71
82
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1305_89369555903039938f4a27a5841a1974.pdf
Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Jump on Corrugated Bed Using FLUENT Model
A
Abbaspour
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
D
Farsadizadeh
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
A
Hosseinzadeh Dalir
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
AA
Sadraddini
گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
Hydraulic jump has been used for dissipation of kinetic energy downstream of hydraulic structuressuch as spillways, chutes and gates. It is found by many researches that if jumps are made to occuron a corrugated bed, tail water and length of jumps will be reduced significantly. During formationof hydraulic jump on a corrugated bed the flow is turbulent, with water and air being mixedtogether. In the present study numerical simulations of hydraulic jump on corrugated bed were doneby the CFD's FLUENT software in two dimensions using standard k-ε and RNG k-ε models. Thefree surface was determined using the VOF method. The results showed that the k-ε turbulentmodels and VOF method for predicting water surface in the jump on the corrugated bed weresuitable and the relative error of the predicted water surface profiles and measured values werewithin 2-7 %. The study of the axial velocity profiles at different sections in the jump showed thatvelocity profiles in different experiments were similar and the agreement between the experimentaland numerical results was satisfactory. Also the effects of corrugations on the basic characteristicsof the jump such as free surface location, velocity and shear stress distributions were studied fordifferent values of Froude number.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
83
96
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1306_e309a9731ffe057e544e958242be73e6.pdf
Modeling Rainfall – Runoff Process in Lighvan Chai Basin Using Conditional Threshold Temperature Neuron
MT
Aalami
گروه عمران آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
H
Hosseinzadeh
گروه عمران آب دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
Necessity of river flow forecasting in constructional works, planning for optimal usage of waterreservoirs, river training and flood warning has been well recognized. In this regard, the rainfall –runoff process has been widely studied using artificial neural networks modeling. In the currentresearch, multi layer perceptron was applied to forecasting rainfall – runoff of Lighvan Chai snowybasin in East Azarbaijan province. The data of the basin includes daily rainfall, temperature, andrunoff which their effects on the efficiency of network were studied at different steps. Getting alongwith the factors of rainfall and temperature at the current day, previous days and runoff in previousdays in entrance matrix has led to the best results for neural networks. As the Lighvan Chai is asnowy basin, the effect of temperature and snowmelt on runoff is very important and a new neuronwhich is called conditional neuron of threshold temperature was introduced. Figure of this neuron isbinary and the numbers are zero – one. The snowmelt temperature is the criterion of using thesenumbers. The results of neural networks model was compared to those from the dimensionlesssnowmelt hydrograph (DSH) including a greater efficiency of the neural networks.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
97
110
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1307_65811fd3ee82a3a81d17916e6dc2b09e.pdf
Effects of Nitrogen Form and pH of Nutrient Solution on the Uptake and Concentrations of Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Sodium in Root and Shoot of Spinach Plant
N
Najafi
گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز
author
M
Parsazadeh
گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز
author
SJ
Tabatabaei
گروه علوم باغبانی دانشگاه تبریز
author
Sh
Oustan
گروه علوم خاک دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
In hydroponic cultures, the effects of nitrogen form and pH of nutrient solution on the chemicalcomposition of plants are important. In order to study their effects on the uptake and concentrationsof K, Ca, Mg and Na in root and shoot of spinach plant, a factorial experiment was conducted withtwo factors including nutrient solution pH at three levels (4.5, 6.5 and 8) and nitrate to ammoniumratio in nutrient solution at five levels (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100). The experiment wascarried out in a completely randomized design with four replications in perlite culture undergreenhouse conditions. Three seedlings of spinach plant (Spinacia oleracea L. Sirius cultivar) werecultivated per pot and with 15 different nutrient solutions were nourished. The concentrations ofnitrogen and other nutrients in all nutrient solutions were identical. The plants were harvested afterseven weeks and spinach root and shoot concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Na were measured by wetdigestion method. Results showed that the effects of nutrient solution pH on the root and shootconcentrations of K, root concentration of Ca, Ca uptake, shoot concentration of Mg weresignificant, but on the root and shoot concentrations of Na, Na uptake, root concentration of Mg,and Mg uptake were not. By increasing the nutrient solution pH from 4.5 to 8, K and Ca uptake byplant, and root concentration of K significantly decreased, while shoot concentrations of K and Mg,and root concentration of Ca significantly increased. The main effect of nitrate to ammonium ratioin nutrient solution, and the interactive effects of pH and the ratio of nitrate to ammonium on theroot and shoot concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Na, and their uptake by plant beca,e significant. Ingeneral, by decreasing the nitrate to ammonium ratio in nutrient solution, the root and shootconcentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Na, and their uptake by spinach plant became significantlydecreased. Also, the effect of nitrate to ammonium ratio of nutrient solution on the root and shootconcentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Na, and their uptake by spinach plant was dependent on thenutrient solution pH and vice versa. The average shoot concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Na werehigher than those in root. There were significant correlations between the shoot and rootconcentrations of these elements, and also between the elements concentrations in the shoot andtheir uptake by spinach plant.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
111
131
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1308_6984b28ff89309b78be0df9d40beadcd.pdf
Kinetics of Manganese Release From Some Calcareous Soils of Iran
A
Reyhanitabar
دانشگاه تبریز
author
text
article
2014
per
Kinetics of native Mn desorption by diethlenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) from 12 calcareous soilsof Iran was studied in a laboratory experiment. Comparisons of coefficients of determination (r 2 ) andstandard errors (SE) for seven different models indicated that the two best models for describing thedesorption data in all soils were two-constant rate and parabolic – diffusion equations. The zero, first,second and third order equations could not describe Mn desorption properly and the coefficients ofdetermination (r 2 ) decreased from zero to third order. Organic carbon and clay contents were the mostpertinent soil characteristics that predicted the rate constants of the two constant and parabolic kineticmodels. The amount of extractable Mn for long extraction times (the constant ˝a˝) increased withorganic matter content. Constant ˝a˝ ranged from 0.585 to 11.24 (mgMn kg-1min-1) and ˝b˝ from o.313 to0.554(mgMn kg-1min-1)-1. The rate at which Mn was extracted from each soil (related to the constant b)were quite variable and was not systematically related to any of the measured soil properties.Consequently a soil test for available Mn involving extraction for a quite short time period mightunderestimate the amount of Mn that was released in reality.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
131
142
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1323_1c9b4701b2a1583515afb801909f40de.pdf
Experimental Study of the Effects of Channel Bed Coarse Sediments on Flow Resistance Coefficient
M
Bahrami Yarahmadi
دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
M
Shafai Bajestan
دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
text
article
2014
per
Determination of flow resistance is an essential parameter for studying and hydraulic analyzing openchannels. Flow resistance in channes with coarse materials on bed is mostly due to grain roughness.Over the past decades several studies have been conducted to correlate the flow resistance to theparticle size; however the effects of particle shapes are not clear so far. Therefore, it is the purpose ofthis work to conduct experimental studies to see how important the type and size of coarse sedimentsare. In this study eight types of sediments; four rounded and four angular sediments have been testedunder different flow conditions in a flume of 10 meter long, 25 cm wide and 50 cm height. Experimentswere conducted under constant bed slope of 0.0005. Results show that parameters such as relativeroughness. s R/ K , Froude number, r F , and channel shape factor, y play important roles in accurateestimation of flow resistance. The results have also shown that in gravelbed rivers the flow resistancecan be estimated by semi logarithmic and power equations with the same accuracy. In this study anequation was also proposed for prediction of flow resistance coefficient.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
143
156
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1324_c272ed7e911538aff9c6fb29cfaeb3f7.pdf
Evaluation of the Agro-Hydrological SWAP Model in Simulating Water Table Fluctuation and Subsurface Drainage Rate
H
Noory
گروه آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه تهران
author
AM
Liaghat
گروه آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Parsinejad
گروه آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه تهران
author
M
Vazifedoust
گروه آبیاری دانشگاه گیلان
author
text
article
2014
per
In this study, evaluation of SWAP model in simulating water table fluctuations and subsurfacedrainage rate was investigated at the wheat- grain maize cultivated unit in the Voshmgir irrigationnetwork, Golestan province. Water table levels and drainage rate data were monitored in the studyarea at different times during the evaluation period. The statistical comparison based on the rootmean square error (RMSE) showed the values of 9.55 cm and 0.22 mm/day for the estimatedground water depth and drainage flow rate, respectively. The simulated groundwater levels andsubsurface drainage rate agreed well with those measured values. The analysis of the estimatedbottom flux by the model and comparison of the measured and simulated water table depths showedthat there was a negligible water exchange between the shallow groundwater and the soil profilebeneath the impermeable layer. For analysis of managerial scenarios, no flow condition at thebottom of the soil profile, and zero bottom flux can be applied as the bottom boundary conditions.Therefore, the SWAP is a powerful model in estimating hydrological components of drainagesystem and drain water management in irrigated areas.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
157
171
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1325_6b01578c5cbc505ee17de939003d0226.pdf
Comparison of Dynamic Artificial Neural Network and Multivariate Linear Regression Models for Inflow Forecasting Using Remote Sensing Data
ME
Banihabib
پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران
author
Farimah Sadat
Jamali
دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2014
per
This study aims to compare the ability of dynamic artificial neural network (DANN) andmultivariate linear regression (LR) in forecasting monthly inflow to Shahcheraghi reservoir inSemnan province, Iran. The input data consisted monthly flow discharge, precipitation, meantemperature and snow cover area. Snow cover area was estimated using NOAA-AVHRR images,based on thresholds in histograms of different phenomena in visible and thermal channels. Dynamicartificial neural networks were determined with one hidden layer, Levenberg-Marquardt as trainingfunction, and sigmoid as transfer function Moreover, five DANN and five LR models were run withdifferent input data and the results were compared. Root mean square (RMSE), mean bias error(MBE), mean absolute relative error (MARE), maximum relative error (REmax) and R2 (coefficientof determination) are the criteria that were used for models evaluation. The best result is gainedwith three inputs (inflow discharge, precipitation and snow cover area) by DANN. Regarding linearregression as a classic model in inflow forecasting, the improvement of the results by using DANNwas obvious. The REmax of the selected DANN model was almost 85% less than REmax of theselected LR.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
173
185
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1326_32e0746c89e3b7c3889a8ea7538dc301.pdf
Estimation of Mean and Critical Irrigation Requirements for the Important Agricultural Crops of Fars Province
Hamid Reza
Foladmand
بخش آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مرودشت
author
text
article
2014
per
Irrigation requirement 15 equal to the difference between water requirement and effective rainfall.The values of water irrigation requirements were reported in NETWAT program for various cropsat different regions of Iran. However, the mean values were used in that program, therefore, thevalues of water and irrigation requirements have probability level of 50 percent. In this study, thevalues of mean irrigation requirement (probability level of 50 percent) and critical irrigationrequirement (high evapotranspiration and low rainfall) were predicted for most importantagricultural crops in some regions of Fars province such as Abadeh, Eghlid, Darab, Dorodzan Dam,Zarghan, Shiraz, Fasa and Lar. Results showed that the reported values of irrigation requirement byNETWAT program were lower than the values of mean irrigation requirement at 88.5 percent ofthe cases. Also, the results indicated that the reported values of irrigation requirement by NETWATprogram were lower than the values of critical irrigation requirement at 98.1 percent of conditions.Therefore, it is possible to determine the values of mean and critical irrigation requirement (highevapotranspiration and low rainfall) of important agricultural crops in Fars province.
Water and Soil Science
University of Tabriz
2008-5133
20
v.
2
no.
2014
187
196
http://water-soil.tabrizu.ac.ir/article_1327_8fc4b39530f50b7690ee770c1c2e00db.pdf